by William G. Robbins
Fall 2021, 122:3
In the 1960s, historian William G. Robbins worked as a crew foreman for the Eastern Lane Forest Protective Association, with the responsibility of responding to fires to quickly contain blazes. That work, Robbins attests, “marked the beginnings of a career-long intellectual and scholarly journey, learning about fire history and policy.” In this essay, he draws on historical data and decades of research and writing to highlight the “effects of global warming,” which “provide powerful evidence that fires are now burning more often and in places they seldom occurred before” due to human-caused climate change.
BY TIAH EDMUNSON-MORTON
Summer 2021, 122:2
In this Research Files article, author Tiah Edmunson-Morton documents her work to reconstruct the life of Luise Wagenblast, “who became Louisa Weinhard, wife of Henry.” As an archivist and educator, Edmunson-Morton spends her time among records and repositories that are filled with many voices, some of which are championed and others silenced. As she describes, “The history of nineteenth-century women’s work is often told through the story of husbands and sons,” and Louisa Weinhard’s life was no different. Through census records, newspaper accounts, and women’s group records, Edmunson-Morton “[knits] together the small bits left behind” to fill in the historical record.
BY WILLIAM SCHULTZ
Spring 2021, 122:1
In 1992, the Oregon Citizens Alliance (OCA) sponsored ballot Measure 9 in Oregon, which author William Schultz describes as “one of the most comprehensive — and harshest — antigay measures put to voters in American history.” OCA’s “No Special Rights” slogan implied that homosexuals sought “special” rights rather than protection against discrimination. In this article, Schultz examines Oregon’s anti–LGBTQ rights measures during the late 1980s and early 1990s and a similar campaign, Amendment 2, in Colorado and how they illuminate “a transitional moment in the history of the Christian Right.” Shultz argues that the story of these campaigns is ultimately a failure, “albeit an instructive failure….in examining how and why a certain concept — such as ‘No Special Rights’ — might take hold in one community and not another.
BY DAMIAN KOSHNICK
Winter 2020, 121:4
In August 2019, Damian Koshnick and his father, William Koshnick, traveled to visit a landscape near Ontario, Oregon, formerly known as “Dead Ox Flat” — a 200-acre homestead claim once owned by his great-grandparents, Stella and Otto Koshnick. There, Stella “diligently choreographed, wrote, and sent hundreds of picture-postcards between 1910 and 1918 to her family in Minnesota.” In this Oregon Places article, Koshnick provides a unique glimpse of early-twentieth-century life in eastern Oregon through his great-grandmother’s postcards, which document her family life and dry-farming conditions many migrants to the region experienced during that time.
“A Proper Attitude of Resistance”: The Oregon Letters of A.H. Francis to Frederick Douglass, 1851–1860
BY KENNETH HAWKINS
Winter 2020, 121:4
A.H. Francis and his brother I.B. Francis immigrated from New York to Oregon in September 1851, a time when the state’s Black exclusion laws barred them from residence and most civil rights. The brothers petitioned the territorial legislature to exempt them from exclusion — it took no action — and they stayed in Oregon to operate a prosperous mercantile store until 1864. Between 1851 and 1861, A.H. wrote letters to his friend Frederick Douglass, who published them in his newspapers in New York. In this Primary Document article, Kenneth Hawkins reproduces nine of those letters and provides context for A.H. Francis’s first-hand documentation of what life was like as a free Black person living in the region.
BY MARC JAMES CARPENTERSummer 2020, 121:2
In this research article, Marc James Carpenter examines the Indian War Veterans of the North Pacific Coast (IWV-NPC), an organization founded by former volunteer soldiers in Oregon and Washington, and how their efforts to reshape historical memory fit within the larger pioneer narrative of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries — a narrative that often skewed Euro-American violence against Native people. Pioneer societies and historians during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries distorted these historical narratives through omission, ignoring settlers’ violence toward Native people and condemning their retribution. As Carpenter suggests, “a true history of the Pacific Northwest must reckon with the legions of Euro-American pioneers who, during the 1840s, the 1850s, and beyond, pursued pogroms and inflicted acts of workaday racial violence in pursuit of a White ethno-state.”
From Stories to Salt Cairns: Uncovering Indigenous Influence in the Formative Years of the Oregon Historical Society, 1898–1905
BY SARAH KEYESSummer 2020, 121:2
Established in December 1898, the Oregon Historical Society (OHS) was founded to “collect and preserve a library of historical material related to the history of the state,” and Sarah Keyes notes that its mission also included “the gathering and preservation of Indians’ traditions.” In this research article, Keyes examines how “through their participation in the formative years of OHS, Native Americans shaped the archival and material collections as well as interpretive documents that continue to serve as the primary organs of preserving and disseminating Oregon history.” Keyes focuses on the first seven years of OHS’s existence shedding “light on early cross-racial and cross-cultural conflict and collaboration within OHS.” Building on scholarship on historical societies in the West and extensive research in OHS’s institutional archives, Keyes examines the close connections between Native and non-Natives in OHS’s formative years, which “contributes to our understanding of OHS and settler-colonialism in Oregon.”
BY NICOLE YASUHARASummer 2020, 121:2
Oregon Historical Society (OHS) Deputy Museum Director Nicole Yasuhara reflects on Sarah Keyes’s Summer 2020 article titled “From Stories to Salt Cairns: Uncovering Indigenous Influence in the Formative Years of the Oregon Historical Society, 1898–1905.” Yasuhara’s primary role of “safeguarding the institution’s three-dimensional cultural resources” at OHS also involves “delineating and safeguarding the information we have about each object” — a task that is often extremely difficult. There are approximately 5,200 Native belongings in the OHS Museum collections, most collected during OHS’s formative years, and as Yasuhara attests, those objects “were stripped of their history,” no doubt due to “power structures between pioneer collectors and their Native sources.” Yasuhara also discusses current institutional practices and goals that guide confront this history and “begin to address the inherently colonial practices of early collecting institutions, including OHS.” That change, she urges, must grow from deeply personal ideological shifts in which practitioners recognize our own privilege and utilize an inclusion and equity lens in our everyday lives.”
by Kristin Mapel Bloomberg
Spring 2020, 121:1
Clara Bewick Colby arrived in Oregon in 1904 and became a key figure and among one of Oregon’s primary fieldworkers during the state’s 1905 to 1906 woman suffrage campaign. In this research article, Kristin Mapel Bloomberg analyzes Colby’s detailed campaign fieldwork records to reveal how “activists conducted their work, building on prior movement strategies by systematizing a professional class of suffrage workers into a centrally organized campaign.” Colby spent her early years as a footsoldier of the movement in Beatrice, Nebraska, where she “wielded her political acumen on the speaker’s platform and as publisher of the influential The Woman’s Tribune (1883–1909), the second-longest-running woman’s rights journal in the United States.” By the time she arrived in Oregon in 1904, she had “ascended to and fallen from the heights of suffrage influence,” but as Bloomberg describes, Oregon held promise and Colby worked tirelessly to collect signatures to put a state constitutional change on the ballot. While the 1905–1906 campaign was imperfect and ultimately failed, it helped establish strategies that would be used successfully in future campaigns.
BY JANE CIGARRANSpring 2020, 121:1
On January 4, 1971, two plain-clothed FBI agents who did not identify themselves entered the James family home in North Portland, Oregon, to arrest Charles James, Jr., who had been declared AWOL from the Navy. Cheryl D. James, then seventeen years old, witnessed one of the agents putting her younger brother in a chokehold and he was unable to breathe. Cheryl hit the agent over the head with a rolling pin and was violently arrested later that day in her home by about a dozen armed agents. Cheryl, a minor, was convicted of assault, resisting arrest, and opposing FBI agents with a dangerous weapon (a rolling pin) in April 1971 and sentenced to eighteen months at Terminal Island prison in San Pedro, California. In this research article, Jane Cigarran documents the case of Cheryl D. James “as a microcosm of what was happening across the country at the time,” and how it revealed the racial politics in Portland during the 1960s and 1970s. Her case, Cigarran argues, “offers a glimpse into how a system of “law and order” that is supposed to protect and serve proved fundamentally set up to fail Black women in Portland.”
BY CARMEN P. THOMPSON
Winter 2019, 120:4
In this introduction to the Oregon Historical Quarterly’s Winter 2019 special issue on the history of White supremacy and resistance in Oregon, Dr. Carmen P. Thompson discusses the concept of Whiteness — “an expectation (sometimes an unconscious expectation) that the government will maintain laws and policies generally benefitting White people.” Through the interdisciplinary field of Critical Whiteness Studies, scholars, including Thompson, have explored the concept of Whiteness and “exposed a racialized system that overall, has been detrimental to the masses.” Thompson provides an analysis of critical scholarship in the field and makes connections between the articles in this issue and “two core characteristics of Whiteness that are present in Oregon’s White supremacist history — expectation and exclusion.”
BY KATRINE BARBER
Winter 2019, 120:4
When Esther Bell Hanna migrated to Oregon Territory in September 1852 and documented in her diary her first glimpse of the Columbia River, “she looked out over a landscape that contained relationships both legible and illegible to her.” In this research article, Barber explores those relationships through the lens of settler colonialism and White supremacy that “alienated Indigenous people from their lands through ordinary acts of fencing and plowing fields” and “disorganized terror and calculated war.” Barber also discusses acts of disruption and resistance to White supremacy, and argues that “to grapple with the foundations, legacies, and persistent characteristics of settler colonialism and its twin — White supremacy — is to grapple with the inequities that shape Oregon’s history, present, and future in ways both symbolic and material.”
BY KENNETH R. COLEMAN
Winter 2019, 120:4
Kenneth R. Coleman examines the 1850 Oregon Donation Land Claim Act, a bill unprecedented in its generous land distribution and unique in that it was the only federal land-distribution act that specifically limited land grants by race. Oregon’s early political leaders “repeatedly invoked a Jacksonian vision of egalitarianism rooted in White supremacy to justify their actions” and successfully lobbied Congress to allow White settlers to seize Indigenous lands before they were ceded through federal treaties. The DCLA allowed privatization of over 2.5 million acres of Oregon land and influenced future land-distribution legislation, such as the 1863 Homestead Act. In using land as a tool of racial exclusion, Coleman argues that “Oregon’s early political leaders initiated a pattern that continued well into the twentieth century,” and “any serious attempt to challenge White supremacy in Oregon must engage with the economic legacy of institutionalized racism limiting access to real estate and, as such, wealth and social power.”
BY JOHANNA OGDEN
Winter 2019, 120:4
In March 1910, anti-Indian violence erupted in St. John’s, then a city just outside Portland, Oregon, perpetrated by a crowd of two hundred White laborers joined by the mayor, police chief, and two police officers. While the 1910 St. Johns riot is not well known, Johanna Ogden situates it within a growing anti-Asian movement along the West coast that “rocked towns from California to British Columbia and targeted Indian, Japanese, and Chinese shopkeepers and laborers.” The Indians fought back the night of the riot and, with the backing of the Multnomah County District Attorney’s Office and the British Consulate, demanded prosecution of the rioters. Ogden provides an account of the riot and how the Indian community in the region “became a center of anti-colonial organizing” in forming Ghadar, a global movement to free India from British rule.
Liberty Ships and Jim Crow Shipyards: Racial Discrimination in Kaiser’s Portland Shipyards, 1940–1945
by John Linder
Winter 2019, 120:4
During World War II, the Black population Portland-Vancouver region in Oregon grew tenfold. New arrivals sought work in war industries, particularly in the three large Kaiser Company shipyards where a majority of skilled jobs were under the jurisdiction of the Local 72 of the Boilermakers Union, which refused to admit Black members. John Linder describes how during a time when shipyards needed skilled workers, “qualified Black workers were consigned to laboring jobs or forced to join a segregated and powerless ‘auxiliary local’.” Linder’s article sheds light on some of that systemic discrimination reinforced by corporations and ignored by the federal government that has had lasting effects into the present. It also highlights that “significant victories were won by Black workers and organizers who relied on mass action rather than the promises and proclamations of government and company officials.
BY CRAIG OWEN JONES
Fall 2019, 120:3
Author Craig Owen Jones writes “the failure of American Cricket to flourish in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is the Rorschach inkblot test for sports historians — each sees in the failure whatever they wish to see.” In this research article, explores the history of cricket in Oregon, and especially the Portland Cricket Club, “with an emphasis on cricket clubs’ sociological and demographic makeup.” The earliest reference of cricket in Oregon are in newspaper reports on cricket games being played in Portland in 1873. By the late 1870s, cricket had expanded beyond Portland to areas as far apart as Albany, Astoria, and Corvallis. Jones ultimately concludes that cricket’s failure to establish in Oregon was due to major cricket clubs taking on an exclusionary membership of mainly upper-class players, and failed to establish a broader appeal. Although cricket never took off in Oregon, Jones emphasizes that “it nonetheless played a persistent, if small, role in sporting life for almost three quarters of a century.”
“What’s in a name?”: The University of Oregon, De-Naming Controversies, and the Ethics of Public Memory
BY MATTHEW DENNIS AND SAMUEL REIS-DENNIS
Summer 2019, 120:2
In this essay, Matthew Dennis and Samuel Reis-Dennis explore the significance of honorific building naming on college campuses. According to Dennis and Reis-Denis, “questions about honorific naming opportunities…are not just academic — they are edifying. In 2015, African American students at the University of Oregon presented university president Michael Schill with a list of demands to address racism on campus, including removing the names of Matthew Deady and Frederic Dunn from campus buildings. Deady, a prominent lawyer, judge, and president of the 1857 Constitutional Convention, held pro-slavery views and advocated for black exclusion but also protected Chinese who faced discrimination and violence. Dunn, a classics professor at the university from 1898 to 1937, helped lead Eugene’s chapter of the KKK as its Exalted Cyclops. Ultimately, Schill decided to rename the Dunn building but not Deady Hall, a move the authors suggest “excused the inexcusable,” and elevated Deady’s efforts on behalf of Chinese inhabitants over his racist views.
BY LAURIE MERCIER
Spring 2019, 120:1
Laurie Mercier documents influential women in Oregon’s labor movement between 1945 and 1970 and how their work at the state level intersected with national movements. According to Mercier, “union leaderships’ fixed belief in labor hierarchy reflected the stubborn ideology of the white male breadwinner,” and unions in the Pacific Northwest “emphasized physical strength and masculine solidarity in their defense of sex-segregated work.” As a result, little has been written about working-class women’s grassroot efforts following World War II to employ multi-pronged strategies for workplace reforms. In this research article, Mercier sheds light on some of those women and how their efforts helped shape a growing feminist movement that “accelerated the rate of change in working women’s lives.”
BY AMY E. PLATT WITH LAURA CRAY
SPRING 2019, 120:1
Amy E. Platt’s and Laura Cray’s recent research on the Oregon State Constitution for Oregon Historical Society (OHS) exhibits and digital collections prompted this reflection essay to commemorate OHS’ 160th anniversary and the opening of its new permanent exhibit, Experience Oregon. Platt guides readers through Oregon’s slavery debate by examining accounts of the Constitutional Convention proceedings and select readings from the final document and draft copies held at OHS. Cray describes how those draft pages were digitized and how they reveal the physical work of cutting and pasting changes that were required to produce this guiding document. Platt describes those changes as “remnants of issues that newly arrived mid nineteenth-century Oregonians had been wringing their hands over since the 1840s: who could live and work in Oregon; who could own property; would Oregon be a slave state; and how was the government going to control it all?” That process of changing a word and pasting a sentence “helped create one of the most racially exclusionary states in the country.”
BY LILY HARTWinter 2018, 119:4
The Confluence Story Gathering Collection, a non-profit organization that conducts interviews with Indigenous people of the Columbia River, aims to broaden the history of the Pacific Northwest, which is often centered on the Lewis and Clark Expedition and migrants who came to the region by way of the Oregon Trail. In this Research Files essay, Lily Hart describes the Confluence Project, its partners, and highlights some of the stories it has collected since 2011.
BY KATRINE BARBER, LILY HART, CURTIS JEWELL, MADELYN MILLER, AND GRETA SMITH
Fall 2018, 119:3
This Local History Spotlight documents Portland State University students’ research on how barriers to homeownership in communities of color have influenced the concentration of wealth and inequality in Portland, Oregon. The students conducted research by using crowdsourcing efforts to obtain property deed information, and partnered with other university students and local organizations to disseminate their initial findings. The authors concluded that “by documenting racially restrictive covenants, we revealed the many ways that people of color have been denied access to property in Portland, how they navigated restrictions to purchasing homes, and the ongoing legacies of housing inequality in our community.”
BY MELISSA CORNELIUS LANG
Fall 2018, 119:3
Melissa Lang was one of three panelists at a public history roundtable at the Oregon Historical Society commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the 1968 Fair Housing Act. In this record of her presentation, Lang documents African American resistance to housing exclusion by highlighting stories of those Portlanders who “fought back and uplifted their community from within.” Three ways that resistance manifested included Black realtors and investors who helped circumnavigate the system of exclusionary practices and redlining; Black-owned banks and credit unions that provided loans for property upkeep; and Black activist organizations beginning in the 1940s that advocated for better housing policies. Lang argues that by “capitalizing on their industriousness,” these resisters “developed a network of realtors and investment opportunities when they were otherwise excluded, and they founded and utilized community organizations to keep the work of the city and the state in check.”
BY GRETA SMITH
Fall 2018, 119:3
Greta Smith, one of three presenters at a public history roundtable at the Oregon Historical Society commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the 1968 Fair Housing Act, describes her research on restrictive covenants used as early tools in Portland, Oregon, to segregate neighborhoods. In this record of her talk, Smith describes how restrictive covenants written into property title deeds were designed to protect “neighborhoods from the encroachment of economically undesirable features,” such as types and locations of buildings on a property and, in the early twentieth century, the kinds of people who could inhabit a property. Enforcement of these covenants “took the work of private citizens with state support,” citing quality of life concerns to maintain homogenous neighborhoods through “redlining.” Smith concludes by discussing how covenants and redlining may have protected white and wealthier homeowners’ property values, but they affected generations of African Americans through disinvestment and exclusion.
BY CARMEN P. THOMPSON
Fall 2018, 119:3
On Sunday, April 8, 2018, local researchers gathered for a roundtable discussion at the Oregon Historical Society to present research they had uncovered about housing segregation and resistance in Portland, Oregon. Carmen P. Thompson moderated that discussion and presented to attendees an introduction to housing segregation. In this record of her presentation, Thompson documents how housing segregation in Portland, Oregon, stems from policies and practices rooted in the enslavement of people of African descent. These policies, she attests, “instituted a national racial hierarchy of white supremacy and Black inferiority.” Thompson also reflects on each of the presenters’ research and draws connections to “institutional racism, Black resistance, and private citizens’ silence,” during this commemoration the fiftieth anniversary of the 1968 Fair Housing Act.
Small Steps on the Long Journey to Equality: A Timeline of Post-Legislation Civil Rights Struggles in Portland
by Leanne Serbulo
Fall 2018, 119:3
Leanne Serbulo presented a timeline of civil rights struggles in Portland, Oregon, at a public history roundtable at the Oregon Historical Society commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the 1968 Fair Housing Act. In this record of her presentation, Serbulo documents milestones in dismantling racial discrimination between 1949 and 1990. For this timeline, Serbulo researched Metropolitan Human Relations Commission (MHRC) records held at the Portland City Archives and traces how the commission navigated the process of improving race relations in the city and Multnomah County. As Serbulo argues, “civil rights legislation was simply the first step in a long and unfinished journey toward equality.” As the timeline shows, dismantling racial discrimination occurred primarily in public agencies during that time period, as “MHRC and other civil rights organizations had little influence over the myriad of diffuse transactions in the housing market, and the public agencies that were empowered to regulate those markets were reluctant to aggressively police the private housing industry.”
BY CAMERON LA FOLLETTE, DOUGLAS DEUR, DENNIS GRIFFIN, AND SCOTT S. WILLIAMS
Summer 2018, 119:2
For two centuries, physical evidence of a vast shipwreck, including beeswax and Chinese porcelain, has washed ashore in the Nehalem Spit area on the north coast of Oregon. The story of the wreck has been “shrouded by time, speculation, and surprisingly rich and often contradictory Euro-American folklore.” In this introduction to the Oregon Historical Quarterly’s special issue, “Oregon’s Manila Galleon,” authors Cameron La Follette, Douglas Deur, Dennis Griffin, and Scott S. Williams summarize the rich archival findings and archaeological evidence that points to the Santo Cristo de Burgos, a Manila galleon owned by the kingdom of Spain and bringing Asian trade goods to the Americas, as the ship that came to be known as the “Beeswax Wreck.”
BY CAMERON LA FOLLETTE AND DOUGLAS DEUR
Summer 2018, 119:2
From 1565 to 1815, Manila galleons such as the Santo Cristo de Burgos — the ship now thought to be the seventeenth century “Beeswax Wreck” that sank or ran aground near Nehalem Spit in Oregon — followed a 12,000-mile route from the Philippines through the stormy North Pacific, sometimes passing parallel to what is now the north Oregon coast, before reaching their destination in Acapulco, Mexico. The galleons were a central part of Spain’s complex international commerce system, transporting people and Asian goods around the world. In this article, Cameron La Follette and Douglas Deur discuss the Spanish empire and the Manila galleon trade; tempestuous seas and hazardous weather conditions that likely led to the ship’s demise; oral traditions of the Native peoples who encountered the shipwreck and its survivors; and the Euro-American interpretations of that oral tradition that fueled treasure-hunters’ speculations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
BY SCOTT S. WILLIAMS, CURT D. PETERSON, MITCH MARKEN, AND RICHARD ROGERS
Summer 2018, 119:2
A volunteer group of archaeologists, historians, geologists, and community members began working in 2006 on a project aimed at identifying the identity of Oregon’s “Beeswax Wreck.” The authors are involved in the group’s Beeswax Wreck Project and discuss here their research process and findings that support the hypothesis that the Santo Cristo de Burgos, a Manila galleon, was the ship that wrecked near Nehalem Spit. Along with systematic archaeological documentation, the team used beeswax stamped with Spanish shippers’ marks to determine the ship’s country of origin and radiocarbon dating of Chinese porcelain sherds coupled with geological research to determine when the ship wrecked. According to the authors, “for those of us researching the Beeswax Wreck, the goal has never been to recover artifacts or ‘treasure.’ Instead, we are most interested in solving the mysteries of the what ship wrecked off the north coast of Oregon three hundred years ago.”
BY MARTIN WHITE
Spring 2018, 119:1
In this research article, Martin White documents Black students' attempt to implement a Black Studies program at Reed College in Portland, Oregon — a struggle that ultimately "failed to take root." In 1968, Black students at the college, many of whom had been actively recruited through a scholarship program, formed a Black Student Union (BSU) that advocated for expanding Reed's curriculum beyond its Eurocentric focus. During the next two years, Black students demanded, and ultimately established, a Black Studies Center on campus; however, lack of funding and institutional commitment undermined the program. In 2018, "the echoes of past conflicts are again being heard on the Reed campus," as students are renewing that debate. As White points out, "racial justice remains a central issue in American life," and "Reed College will decide the role it will play."
BY LAURA CRAY
Spring 2018, 119:1
William Lovell Finley spent his career advocating for the protection of birds and wildlife and was a leading figure in the early-twentieth-century conservation movement. While Finley was prominent during that time, his work has fallen into obscurity due to the scattered nature of his archival materials. In this heavily illustrated Research Files essay, Laura Cray — digital services librarian at the Oregon Historical Society — documents Finley's career and the year-long digitization to make available online nearly all of his archival materials held at the Oregon Historical Society and Oregon State University. Included in the project are nearly 7,000 images and over 8,000 pages of manuscript materials that are available at digitalcollections.ohs.org and oregondigital.org/sets/finley-bohlman.
BY DIANE SIMMONS
Spring 2018, 119:1
In this Reflection Essay, Diane Simmons describes the research she conducted for her book, The Courtship of Eva Eldridge, a biographical narrative of a young woman during World War II. Eldridge worked at a cafeteria in the Kaiser Swan Island shipyard beginning in 1944. During her research, Simmons looked at runs of Kaiser's company newsletter, The Bo's'n's Whistle, to give her insight into Eldrige's experience. Through that research, Simmons found that women first faced a cold reception, but by 1944 when Eldridge arrived, the company's efforts to make the environment more appealing to women was evident. After being integrated into the workforce, many women then encountered propaganda urging them back into the domestic sphere.
BY LYNN STEPHEN
Winter 2017, 118:4
In this research article, Lynn Stephen documents Mam Indigenous people immigrating to Oregon from Guatemala seeking refuge from violence and harsh economic and social inequities. "For many Guatemalans...who fled violence in their home communities, seeking asylum in the United States is one of the only routes to safety." Since the 1980s, Mam have brought to Oregon a diversity of languages and cultures, relying on transborder social connections to create new lives and communities. As Stephen argues, "like Germans, Swedish, Irish, English, and other immigrants who have settled in Oregon, Guatemalan immigrants are adapting to the state and integrating their families into local communities, bringing with them unique skills and knowledge."
by Carol Silverman
Winter 2017, 118:4
Roma have resided in Oregon since the early twentieth century, however, many Oregonians know little about the community beyond “gypsy” stereotypes. Although Romani people arrived in the state from Europe, most Oregonians treated them as non-White outsiders. In this research article, Carol Silverman describes the history of Roma in Oregon — immigrants that are often ignored by scholars — and “highlight[s] the tension between continuous discrimination and the challenge of keeping Romani language and culture vibrant.” Through strong family and community ties and selective integration, Romani remain resilient.
Tribes of the Oregon Country: Cultural Plant Harvests and Indigenous Relationships with Ancestral Lands in the Twenty-first Century
BY REBECCA DOBKINS, SUSAN STEVENS HUMMEL, CEARA LEWIS, GRACE POCHIS, AND EMILY DICKEY
Winter 2017, 118:4
Documented human presence in Oregon dates to at least 12,000 to 14,500 years ago, and Oregon Tribes "have ongoing legal, ecological, and cultural relationships with their ancestral lands even when they have been forcibly removed from them." In this article, the authors discuss research they conducted to document the importance of understanding Native cultural plant harvesting and access rights on U.S. government land. The authors argue that "to sustain the Pacific Northwest's ecosystems and all the people who now call the region home, then there is a role for management that includes traditional knowledge….because Indigenous systems for tending plants and animals have been influencing forests and sustaining humans for millennia."
BY RUSS KAROW AND GLORIA LUTZ
Fall 2017, 118:3
In this Local History Spotlight, Russ Karow and Gloria Lutz document a collaborative project to gather historical information about the crops produced in Yamhill County, Oregon. They compiled data from historical agricultural and farm records at Oregon State University and the Oregon Historical Society that resulted in a set of spreadsheets documenting the earliest pioneer-introduced crops through 2012. The spreadsheets were then circulated among community members to fill in the historical gaps based on family records and oral histories. Their documentation also included “first plants” used by Native Americans in the region based on research by Native scholars.
Summer 2017, 118:2
This special section contains reflections on the centennial anniversary of World War One, and includes articles by Kimberly Jensen, Christopher Nichols, Michael Kazin, Michael Helquist, Steven Beda, Adriane Lentz-Smith, Steven Sabol, and Candice Bredbenner.
The Earliest American Map of the Northwest Coast: John Hoskins’s A Chart of the Northwest Coast of America Sketched on board the Ship Columbia Rediviva . . . 1791 & 1792
by James V. Walker and William L. Lang
Summer 2017, 118:2
Between 1790 and 1793, John Hoskins created a map of the Northwest Coast of North America that included ninety-one place names documenting Native communities. The map is the earliest example of such detailed documentation by an American and was rediscovered in 1852 at the Cartographic Archives Division of the National Archives and Records Administration. In this research article, James Walker and William Lang provide a historical context for the map, including comparative charts that break down the Native names that Hoskins documented into seven cultural groups. According to Walker and Lang, the map “opens a window to what American traders knew, what they perceived about the region, and what they may have understood about the Native landscape.”
Women’s ‘Positive Patriotic Duty’ to Participate: The Practice of Female Citizenship in Oregon and the Expanding Surveillance State during the First World War
by Kimberly Jensen
Summer 2017, 118:2
Kimberly Jensen explores the practice of visible female citizenship in America during and after the First World War. During that time, thousands of women in Oregon participated in “visible civic pageantry” associated with national Liberty Loan drives and “an emerging surveillance state that included new strategies for scrutiny.” Jensen documents local and national forces “on women to conform to wartime norms,” and highlights ways in which women resisted wartime surveillance that challenged their civil liberties.
Jim Rock Historic Can Collection: Southern Oregon University’s Digital Collection Celebrating Jim Rock’s Contributions to Tin Can Archaeology
BY SHANA SANDOR AND CHELSEA ROSE
Spring 2017, 118:1
Archaeologist Jim Rock pioneered the study of tin cans in the United States, traveling around the country with a suitcase containing his collections wrapped in wool socks. His collection is now housed at Southern Oregon University (SOU), and a digital exhibit of Rock’s publications and collection is available online at the Southern Oregon University Digital Archives (SODA). Shana Sandor and Chelsea Rose discuss a brief history of the tin can, Rock’s contributions to archaeological research, and document the extensive digitization process required to present the tin can collection online. As Sandor and Rose emphasize, “at first glance, the digital collection is an archive of many examples of historic tin cans,” but “on closer inspection… researchers see beyond the rust to a deeper meaning,” that “tells a stunningly complex story of the American experience.”
BY TRUDY VAUGHANSPRING 2017, 118:1
Trudy Vaughan has attended the annual State of Jefferson Historical Group (SOJHG) meetings since 1983. Since that time she has maintained an attendee mailing list, sending out information to the non-political group’s members that include archaeologists, museum professionals, historians, librarians, Native Americans, and community members interested in the State of Jefferson. The Forty-first annual meeting was held in February 2017 in Redding, California, and over one hundred people attended to discuss a wide range of topics involving the history of the State of Jefferson, a region that encompasses northern California and Southwest Oregon. “This is an informal group where all are welcome,” and according to Vaughan, “the SOJHG…offers a unique opportunity to share research and knowledge from this cross-state region.”
BY JEFF LALANDE
SPRING 2017, 118:1
Residents of northern California and southwestern Oregon organized a series of highly-publicized events in 1941 in support of a secession movement to form a new state called the State of Jefferson. In his essay, Jeff LaLande describes the history of the movement’s identity that can be summarized as: “Let us depart from California and from Oregon; we shall throw in our lot together, make common cause, and decide our own destiny as a single, new state.” The movement evolved in three phases – the search for political identity during the mid to late 1850s; garnering political attention in the in the early to mid twentieth century; and finally, from the 1970s to present the search for a true political identity. As LaLande attests, the “desire for increased self-determination is indeed a theme common to all three phases of the Jefferson story.”
BY CHELSEA ROSE AND MARK AXEL TVESKOV
Spring 2017, 118:1
In the spring of 1872, members of the Carolina Company migrated from North Carolina to Oregon and formed the town of Powers, which is one of the most isolated areas in western Oregon. According to Chelsea Rose and Mark Tveskov,” the homesteaders, like the Native Americans, made a life along the South Fork [Coquille River] that considered the region on its own terms,” and “they chose the place for its inherent qualities.” In 2010, the Coquille Indian Tribe and archaeologists from the Southern Oregon University Laboratory of Anthropology conducted work at sites associated with the Carolina Company – the Hayes family home site, and Mill Creek site that was home to the Rural post office. The archaeological work revealed remnants of the nineteenth-century settlement, which provides valuable information on Euro-American life along the South Fork.
BY MARK AXEL TVESKOV
Spring 2017, 118:1
The Battle of Hungry Hill, fought on October 31 and November 1, 1855, ended in a “humiliating defeat for a fragile coalition of U.S. Army dragoons and several companies of citizen volunteers” against the Takelma. In this research article, Mark Tveskov describes how Euro-American accounts of the battle “overlooked the American defeat,” “veterans of the battle minimized the defeat and desertion in their memoirs, sometimes mythologizing the battle to the point of turning it into a victory,” and “the battle was lost to the larger historical narrative of the American West.” In September 2012, a team of archaeologists and scholars discovered the battle site, and their research points to a history that is sometimes at odds with long-standing portrayals of the Battle of Hungry Hill.
By Jennifer Strayer
Winter 2016, 117:4
Jennifer Strayer interviewed the Oregon Historical Society’s former Library Director Geoff Wexler about his work to “provide greater visibility for archival collections, not only through the traditional venues of library reading rooms but also through innovative exhibits that ease the tension between art and duration, history and imagination.” In this Oregon Voices piece, Wexler discusses the Oregon Historical Society’s photograph collection, which “is estimated to be around six to seven million images” in collections ranging from studio portraits to landscape photography to newer acquisitions of two large African American collections. OHS is currently working on a new digital infrastructure that will greatly expand online access to its archival images, a collection that has been built by “many years of labor of previous staff members,” and “without their work, OHS would not hold one of the premier photography collections in the United States.”
The Unwanted Sailor: Exclusions of Black Sailors in the Pacific Northwest and the Atlantic Southeast
BY JACKI HEDLUND TYLER
Winter 2016, 117:4
Jacki Hedlund Tyler, a recipient of the 2014 Donald J. Sterling, Jr., Graduate Research Fellowship in Pacific Northwest History, documents little-known Pacific Northwest sailor laws and their role in racial oppression in Oregon. Tyler compares Oregon’s early black sailor laws, beginning prior to the Civil War and continuing past statehood in 1859, with Negro Seaman Acts of slave-holding states in the Atlantic Southeast. On both coasts the laws helped “legitimize claims of authority and ownership made by white inhabitants over non-white populations” and were “linked to debates over the institution of slavery; the desire to regulate maritime trade; and efforts to prohibit the spread of ‘contagion’ in the form of racial hostilities.” This research article is an important addition to the history of black American sailors during the nineteenth century.
The Making of Seaside’s “Indian Place”: Contested and Enduring Native Spaces on the Nineteenth Century Oregon Coast
BY DOUGLAS DEUR
WINTER 2016, 117:4
During the mid nineteenth century, non-Native settlement and activities disrupted and changed historic Chinook and Clatsop communities at the mouth of the Columbia River. Indian Place in what would be Seaside, Oregon, became home to a number of displaced peoples and an enclave where “the living gathered with the remains of the dead,” for “modest protection from the apocalyptic changes that so radically disrupted tribal lands, lives, and worldviews.” Douglas Deur documents tribal migration to the Indian Place during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and calls attention to many of its significant early residents. Transitional communities such as Indian Place, Deur attests, “defined the nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Native experience in northwestern Oregon and beyond.” While the Indian Place no longer exists, it remains an “important [conduit] for tribal cultural knowledge, values, and practices that endure today.”
BY WILLIAM G. ROBBINS
WINTER 2016, 117:4
In this essay, William G. Robbins reflects on the 2016 armed occupation of the Malheur Wildlife Refuge in Harney County through the lens of land ownership history in Oregon. The occupiers, Robbins argues, “raised timeworn historical issues regarding the federal estate in the American West: access to and use of land, the legal boundaries between public and private ownership, and the constitutional questions involved.” Oregon is one of twelve public-land states, with 52.9 percent of its land is under federal jurisdiction, and “many residents feel excluded from decision-making.” Robbins asserts, however, that “states have been intimately associated with federal initiatives from the beginning,” and the Malheur occupiers’ motivations for privatization of public land in Oregon based on a “misconstrued history.”
The National Historic Preservation Act at Fifty: How a Wide-Ranging Federal-State Partnership Made its Mark on Oregon
BY ELISABETH WALTON POTTER
Fall 2016, 117:3
Since the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) was signed into law in 1966, its “benefit to the nation has been far-reaching.” In this introductory essay to a special section celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the NHPA, Elisabeth Potter explores how historic preservation incentives were adopted and advanced in Oregon. The NHPA established a nationwide framework for cultural resource management that is used by individual states to set preservation priorities. Oregon, for example, is notable for Goal 5 of Senate Bill 100, an early land-use law requiring comprehensive planning to include provisions for protecting historic resources. That law greatly expanded state inventories of historic resources until it was amended in 1995. Although Oregon’s early historic preservation programs under the NHPA were productive, Potter suggests that “some of the most apparent challenges ahead for Oregon preservationists boil down to counteracting erosion of protective measures… and expanding state and local incentives for investment.”
BY KELLY CANNON-MILLER
Fall 2016, 117:3
Kelly Cannon-Miller, Executive Director of the Deschutes County Historical Society, examines the fate of “Big Red,” or the Brooks-Scanlon Crane Shed building (demolished in 2004), and historic preservation in Bend, Oregon. Constructed in 1937, the crane shed stood prominently in Bend’s mill district, representing the city’s origins as a lumber town. Beginning in 1993, a confluence of events jeopardized Big Red’s existence — the mill closed, Bend became a popular destination for retirement and outdoor enthusiasts, and the district was rezoned and purchased for redevelopment. Even though the crane shed was a significant remnant of Bend’s past, denying a demolition permit was seen by some as a government intrusion on private property rights. As Cannon-Miller describes, “the story of how the community debated the shed’s value reveals the complexities and pitfalls that exist in balancing the goals of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) with owners’ rights and with local and state land-use regulations.”
BY CHRISTINE CURRAN
Fall 2016, 117:3
In this review essay, Oregon’s Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer Christine Curran describes the importance of Space, Style and Structure: Building in Northwest America, a bicentennial commemorative study published by the Oregon Historical Society. Containing over one thousand images of the built environment in the Pacific Northwest, the two-volume book of essays is extensive in scope, providing analysis of both past and then-contemporary projects — some of which had yet to be constructed. While “Style, Space and Structure was conceived as a dispassionate planning tool, it is unapologetic about its preservation bias....without resorting to self-indulgent nostalgia.” Curran credits the book with providing contexts for conserving the region’s built environment, including resources of the recent past, while helping us all “understand that the past is a moving target.”
COMPILED BY ELISABETH POTTER
Fall 2016, 117:3
In this extensive timeline, Elisabeth Potter documents significant historic preservation events in Oregon, which range from the founding of the Oregon Historical Society in 1898 through recent historic preservation court rulings in 2016. Potter was an original staff member of the Oregon State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and served the program until she retired in 1998. Her breadth of knowledge and experience is reflected in this detailed account of national, state, and local historic preservation initiatives and provisions that have impacted Oregon’s landscape.
The Persistence and Characteristics of Chinook Salmon Migrations to the Upper Klamath River Prior to Exclusion by Dams
By John B. Hamilton, Dennis W. Rondorf, William R. Tinniswood, Ryan J. Leary, Tim Mayer, Charleen Gavette, and Lynne A. Casal
Fall 2016, 117:3
In this research article, John Hamilton and his co-authors present extensive new research and information gathered since a 2005 publication on the historical evidence of anadromomous fish distribution in the Upper Klamath River watershed. Using historical accounts from early explorers and ethnographers to early-twentieth-century photographs, newspaper accounts, and government reports, the authors provide a more complete record of past salmon migrations. The updated record “substantiate[s] the historical persistence of salmon, their migration characteristics, and the broad population baseline that will be key to future commercial, recreational, and Tribal fisheries in the Klamath River and beyond.” During a time when salmon restoration plans are being considered in the region, the historical record can serve as guidance to once again establish diverse and thriving populations.
by Christin Hancock
Summer 2016, 117:2
Klamath women's health and experiences of pregnancy and childbirth have been dramatically transformed by shifting federal Indian policies that have structured their lives form the nineteenth-century institution of the reservation through the mid-twentieth-century period of termination. Federal policies that may initially appear disconnected from health and health care have devastated the Klamath people’s overall “well-being” in two ways. Federal policies, beginning with the reservation system but also including the later policy of termination, disrupted traditional Klamath birth practices, replacing them with the western medical model of care. After disrupting those traditions, the federal government repeatedly failed to provide both funding for and access to any adequate level of western health care. These continuous failures reflect the ongoing nature of settler colonialism and its impact on Klamath women's birthing experiences.
WRITTEN BY KHRIS SODEN AND MICHAEL HELQUIST
DRAWN BY KHRIS SODEN
Summer 2016, 117:2
This graphic short story uses visual narrative to depict events that occurred during the 1916 visit to Portland, Oregon by birth control advocate Margaret Sanger. It relies on evidence and imagination to portray the lectures, arrests, and rally supporting Sanger. Graphic nonfiction can enhance historical events and engage readers with visual information that is more evocative and nuanced than narrative text alone.
BY MICHAEL HELQUIST
Summer 2016, 117:2
Margaret Sanger's birth control pamphlet Family Limitation significantly shaped American thought, values, and behavior. In the early decades of the twentieth century, the content and distribution of Family Limitation roiled communities throughout the United States. Public officials of Portland, Oregon, first engaged in the controversy when Margaret Sanger visited the city in June 1916. Other accounts have detailed Sanger's troubles in Portland — the only city on her tour to place her behind bars. But the 1916 local edition of Family Limitation (revised by Marie Equi) has not previously been analyzed or compared with editions that preceded or followed it. The Portland version was distinctive for a strong marketing appeal to union members that reflected the intersection of labor organizing and advocacy for reproductive rights. The pamphlet also directed specific advice to men, deleted specific mention of abortion, and criticized local authorities and the medical profession.
BY CRAIG CLINTON
Spring 2016, 117:1
In this heavily illustrated research article, Craig Clinton documents Fred A. Routledge's career as a commercial artist through a series of pictorial maps from the 1890s through 1930s. Although "personal details relating to Routledge's life and career are quite scarce," Clinton examines a range of illustrations to tell a story of his career from early street-level illustrations for the West Shore magazine to later birds-eye views of the Pacific Northwest. Routledge's maps not only documented existing landscapes, but also his "enduring engagement with the natural world and his belief in the transformative potential of humankind." The "quality of his pictorial map," explains Clinton, "was to become a significant feature of commercial travel cartography in the 1930s and beyond."
by Greta Smith
Winter 2015, 116:4
The contents of an old steamer trunk found in the basement of a Portland home were on display in a summer 2015 exhibit at the Old Portland Hardware (OPH). “What, at first glance appeared to be a ‘random collection of vintage ephemera from the 20s and 30s’,” told the story of James L. Wasson’s life in Portland’s Albina area from the 1920s through 1980. Wasson was a soldier during the Mexican Revolution and World War I and worked as a mechanic and automobile electrician. His passion for photography is well documented throughout the trunk’s collection, including self-portraits, negatives of portraits of Portland’s African American community members, a receipt for professional photography equipment, and numerous photographs of his wife Marcelita. OPH donated the collection to Portland State University Library Special Collections, where it is open to the public for research.
BY NATE PEDERSEN AND JEFFREY JOHNSON
Winter 2015, 116:4
In 1924, Frank T. Johns was nominated as the Socialist Labor Party's (SLP) candidate for president of the United States. Known as "Comrade Johns" by fellow SLP party members, Johns became interested in socialist industrial unionism as a young mail carrier and became an outspoken proponent of SLP principles. During his 1924 presidential run, Johns won only 0.1 percent of the national popular vote, but the SLP was thrilled by his sincere "dedication to his party's principles." Johns became the party's candidate for president again in 1928, but died during a campaign speech while attempting to rescue a drowning boy from the Descutes River. "Socialism in the century's first two decades was viable political philosophy," the authors explain, and Johns's short political career "offers documentation of the brief but important SLP moment both nationally and in Oregon."
BY CARL ABBOTT
WINTER 2015, 116:4
Between 1981 and 1985, the intentional community of Rajneeshpuram near Antelope, Oregon, hosted up to 15,000 followers of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, a spiritual leader from Pune, India. In this essay, Carl Abbott examines the rise and fall of Rajneeshpuram within the context of western history, which "centers on the processes of migration, settlement, displacement, and rearrangement." Drawing parallels to earlier religious closed communities, such nineteenth century Mormon settlements, Abbott describes how Rajneeshees fit into the "overarching storylines of frontier utopias and the…narrative of settler colonialism." Unlike Mormon communities, however, Abbott concludes that Rajneeshpuram ultimately failed because its leaders were not willing to compromise community goals when faced with larger state regulatory systems.
Promoting Tourism and Development at Crater Lake: The Art of Grace Russell Fountain and Mabel Russell Lowther
BY GAIL E. EVANSFall 2015, 116:3
Grace Russell Fountain and Mabel Russell Lowther were among a handful of women artists in the Pacific Northwest who moved into the professional sphere at the turn of the twentieth century, and whose work contributed to the promotion and protection of Crater Lake. Fountain and Russell both sought opportunities with Southern Pacific Railroad, which promoted tourist destinations along their new rail corridors with landscape art of the American West. "During their lifetimes, the artwork of Grace Russell Fountain and Mable Russell Lowther made their names almost synonymous with Crater Lake." Their artistry "shaped public perceptions of Crater Lake and played an important visual role in promoting [its] scenic beauty…and designation as a national park."
by Luke Sprunger
Fall 2015, 116:3
by Luke Sprunger During the mid 1960s, Latino families seeking better working conditions and financial prospects began settling in Washington County, Oregon. Many early Tejano (Texas ethnic Mexicans) families abandoned seasonal migrant work to settle permanently in the area and established a strong network of community support systems that helped new arrivals seek healthcare, combat discrimination, and retain cultural identity. Luke Sprunger documents those early community-building efforts through excerpted interviews with five narrators who moved to Washington County during the 1960s. "Their stories give voice to various phases of community growth, activism, and intra-ethnic relations that developed among county Latinos," and "their efforts and initiatives have aided newly arriving Latinos to Washington County and encouraged respect for and among the county's Latino residents."
Hitting the Trail: Live Displays of Native American, Filipino, and Japanese People at the Portland World's Fair
BY EMILY TRAFFORD
Summer 2015, 116:2
The Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition—held in Portland, Oregon, between June 1 and October 15, 1905—garnered over one and a half million visits, paying tribute to the nation's westward expansion and new commercial and immigration ties to Asia. At the world's fair, visitors experienced a series of live-display concessions that included Native Americans, Filipino, and Japanese performers dressed in costume and participating in "sensational ceremonies." Emily Trafford explores those live displays and argues that they "were important cultural arenas for the perpetuation and rehearsal of racism." She explains: "Rather than providing an object and definitive lesson on a particular nation or populace, the concessions worked together to create a site at which white supremacy could be exercised in its various and changeable forms."
BY BY MICHAEL HELQUIST
SPRING 2015, 116:1
Winner of the 2016 Joel Palmer Award. Although Oregon adopted its first anti-abortion law in 1854, Portland's first prosecution of a "criminal operation" (abortion) did not occur for nearly twenty years. The Oregonian coverage of abortion trials from 1870 to 1920 reveals many obstacles prosecutors faced during that time, including lack of sufficient evidence and ambiguities in the state's anti- abortion law. Through case studies and data collected from Oregonian articles during that time period, Michael Helquist explores Portland's early abortion trials that highlight "the nuanced and disparate reactions of physicians who found themselves on the front lines of abortion services, policies, and enforcement." Helquist argues that "an understanding of the conflicts over reproductive policy [is] as important to women's and the nation's history as the struggle to achieve woman suffrage and other rights of citizenship."
by Rachel McLean Sailor
Spring 2015, 116:1
Rachel McLean Sailor explores the history of photography and its role in place-making in the West, while engaging examples of contemporary photography that "can respond anew to a singular moment, and a singular place, while simultaneously encompassing the deep history of its subject matter . . . medium, and the cultural history of all who have attempted such representations in the past." Readers are guided through a number of photographs from the past as well as contemporary examples from the Oregon Historical Society's exhibit, Place: Framing the Oregon Landscape. This exhibit essay touches "on the many ways that the artists in this exhibit are responding not only to place, but also to the histories of landscape . . . and how photographic styles and conceptual approaches have rapidly transformed in America from the 1840s to today."
Planning for a Productive Paradise: Tom McCall and the Conservationist Tale of Oregon Land-Use Policy
by Laura Jane Gifford
Winter 2014, 115:4
Governor Thomas Lawson McCall is remembered by many as a larger-than-life figure who made a mark on the Oregon landscape with his strong land-use planning legislation. Laura Jane Gifford explores that legacy from a new angle through an argument that McCall's vision was tied "to the Republican Party politics of the Progressive Era…. emphasiz[ing] wise use and careful planning to generate progress in place of mere growth." Gifford documents how McCall successfully implement land-use policies in Oregon that ultimately failed nationally.
By Judith Hassen
Winter 2014, 115:4
Since 1935, the building that now houses the Klamath County Museum (formerly the Klamath County Armory and Auditorium) has served as a gathering space in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Originally constructed with Public Works Administration (PWA) as a drill and storage space for Oregon National Guard's Battery D of the 249th Coast Artillery, the Klamath County Armory and Auditorium also provided a large space for public gatherings, such as sporting events, circuses, auto shows, and concerts. In 2011, the building was listed in the National Register of Historic Places, recognizing it as Klamath Museum's "biggest and most important artifact."
“Union for the Sake of the Union:” The Selection of Joseph Lane as Acting President of the United States
BY SI SHEPPARD
Winter 2014; 115:4
The 1860 presidential election was held during a time of turmoil, with the nation divided over the issue of slavery. "The conflicted loyalties of the American citizen body were reflected in the fractured partisan rivalries of the presidential election of 1860," dividing the Democratic Party into two factions. Si Sheppard explores the Democratic Party's "deliberate attempt to spike the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 by denying him the Electoral College votes" and argues that its attempt was the closest chance Oregon has had to see one of its own —Sen. Joseph Lane, a southern sympathizer —as President of the United States.
Stealing from the Dead: Scientists, Settlers, and Indian Burial Sites in Early-Nineteenth-Century Oregon
by Wendi A. Lindquist
Fall 2014, 115:3
In 1835, Hudson’s Bay Company physician Meredith Gairdner sent his most valued specimen to physician and naturalist John Richardson — Chinook leader Chief Comcomly’s skull. As the early nineteenth century practice of phrenology emerged, scientists sought skulls to measure and examine for common traits that might lead to an eventual cultural hierarchy. Many were intrigued by Native head shaping practices and were emboldened to rob gravesites in the name of science and research. Lindquist concludes that, “among other things… [their] research demonstrated that Natives lacked the innate ability to assimilate into American society, providing many nineteenth-century whites with the justification they needed to mistreat Indians.” Euro-Americans eventually saw Native burial sites as places to experience remnants of what they considered a dying race.
Death and Oregon’s Settler Generation: Connecting Parricide, Agricultural Decline, and Dying Pioneers at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
by Peter Boag
Fall 2014, 115:3
Loyd Montgomery murdered his parents and a visiting neighbor in 1895 during a rural depression that greatly impacted Linn County’s local economy and marked a shift from agrarian ways of life. The Montgomerys belonged to a branch of the region’s most notable pioneers, and their death coincided with the reality that a generation of early Oregon pioneers that was quickly passing. Memorializing pioneers became increasingly popular in the late nineteenth century, with statewide and local organizations hosting annual reunions that focused on celebrating hardship overcome by perseverance. In this article, Boag “connects parricide, depression, and celebration,” with the common theme of death “in a triangulation of cause, effect, and remembrance that provided meaning to how a large number of Oregonians experienced the complicated transition to the twentieth century.”
Four Deaths: The Near Destruction of Western Oregon Tribes and Native Lifeways, Removal to the Reservation, and Erasure from History
BY DAVID G. LEWIS
Fall 2014, 115:3
Whether physical, cultural, legal, or in scholarship, death has been part Western Oregon tribes' lives since contact with newcomers. Yet, Native people have survived. This shared tribal legacy, however, is still unknown to many people throughout the state, and according to Lewis, "such historical ignorance is another kind of death - one marked by both myth and silence." He shares stories of his ancestors' death experiences through removal, assimilation, and termination. As tribal historian for the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde, Lewis works to ensure that Native voices are heard in order to "produce and interpret history that continue[s] to develop and will result in a better history for all Oregonians."
by Brian J. Carter with Amy E. Platt
Summer 2014, 115:2
The Oregon Historical Society's exhibit 2 Years, 1 Month: Lincoln's Legacy brings together rare documents and artifacts that utilize the allure of Abraham Lincoln while situating the national figure within a rich regional history. Museum Director Brian J. Carter explains that the exhibit creates "a space for exploration of stories surfaced by Lincoln's wake" and provides "an interpretive path that allows exhibit viewers to move from the evidence of history . . . through the monumental dilemmas of the era — war, slavery, families, and communities who coexisted with Lincoln." The exhibit essay includes images of OHS-owned artifacts and manuscript material displayed in the exhibit as well as contextual notes prepared by Amy Platt, Project Manager for the Oregon Encyclopedia and Oregon History Project,, all of which can also be accessed through the Civil War in Oregon page of the Oregon Encyclopedia (www.oregonencyclopedia.org).
by Stacey L. Smith
Summer 2014, 115:2
When working with the Oregon Historical Society to create the exhibit 2 Years, 1 Month: Lincoln's Legacy, project historian Stacey Smith sought to answer a number of questions about Oregon's place in the Civil War. Drawing on themes from the exhibit and new scholarship on the Civil War in the American West, Smith reveals the Pacific Northwest's critical role in shaping Reconstruction policy and challenges "the myth that Civil War Oregonians were disengaged from the national struggle over slavery and civil rights." Smith describes Oregon as a multiracial society led exclusively by white men, noting that Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation forced the state's leaders to consider citizenship rights beyond just the black-white politics emphasized in most histories of the Civil War. Drawing the story into the 1870s, Smith shows how congressional representatives from Oregon played a prominent role in ensuring that African American enfranchisement did not extend to others, particularly Chinese-born immigrants.
Extant Outdoor Garments in Oregon, 1880 to 1920: Historic Research Using Objects from Oregon's Historical Institutions
BY JENNIFER M. MOWER AND ELAINE L. PEDERSEN
Summer 2014, 115:2
From the 1880s to 1920s, increasing development in Oregon defined the lives of both rural and urban residents. Jennifer Mower and Elaine Pedersen examined that history through close study of ninety-eight garments from historical institutions across the state and consultation with numerous historical records, contemporary publications from the time period, and secondary sources. They suggest that garments, while often overlooked by historians as a resource for information about personal and social history, reveal the ways in which women in Oregon adapted to their changing environments, including new consumer-driven behaviors, modes of transportation, and means of commerce. Clothing and textiles are valuable resources that, when used with written and visual historic documents, can shed new light on local and regional history.
“The Road that Won an Empire”: Commemoration, Commercialization, and the Promise of Auto Tourism at the “Top o’ Blue Mountains”
BY CHELSEA K. VAUGHN
Spring 2014, 115:1
On July 3, 1923, over 30,000 people — including President Warren G. Harding and First Lady Florence Harding — gathered in Meacham, Oregon, for a two-day celebration orchestrated by Walter E. Meacham, president of the Old Oregon Trail Association (OOTA). The purpose of the events was twofold: commemorating the eightieth anniversary of the first immigrant train to the Pacific Northwest and dedicating the Old Oregon Trail Highway. Over 5,000 cars arrived with the first day’s onlookers who travelled on a roadway that had once served wagon trains into the West. The first couple was symbolically adopted by the Cayuse, who presented the first lady with a blanket designed for the ceremony by the Pendleton Woolen Mills. Historian Chelsea Vaughn argues that the celebration combined commemoration with commercialization, signifying a shift in trends around historical memory of the settlement period. She further notes the importance of Native participation and outspokenness within what was essentially a celebration of their colonization.
Thompson’s Mills and the Lost Town of Boston: Oregon’s Newest State Heritage Site Celebrates Its Ten-Year Anniversary
BY KRISTINE DEACON
Spring 2014, 115:1
Thompson’s Mills, Oregon’s oldest water-powered grist mill, is located just east of Shedd in Linn County on the Calapooia River. The mill operated commercially for 146 years, and its owners adapted the mills to evolve with changing regional and national events. Milling began on the site in 1858, and through a dam system, the Calapooia River generated power for the mills until 1986. The Thompson’s Mills State Park is a unique resource for Oregon historians, containing artifacts that document the state’s technological, political, and social past. Journalist and park staff person Kristine Deacon traces the mills’ complete history, drawing out the significance of the historical record in the buildings and collections and narrating the personal, political, and economic impacts on the story with particular attention to the importance of water rights.
By Warren Niete, introduction by Rob Donnelly
Spring 2014, 115:1
Oregon was an early adopter of prohibition laws, banning alcohol four years before the 1920 Constitutional amendment. When prohibition ended in 1933, Oregon legislators passed the Liquor Control Act and the Oregon Liquor Control Commission (OLCC) to retain control over alcohol consumption, which generated much-needed revenue for the state. Despite state control over alcohol, bootleggers made sizeable profits and OLCC agents, such as Warren Niete, were tasked with stopping bootleg alcohol consumption with very few resources available. Niete's captivating recollection provides insight on OLCC law enforcement agents' challenges as they worked to regulate the sale and consumption of alcohol during the 1950s.
“Our Vanishing Glaciers”: One Hundred Years of Glacier Retreat in the Three Sisters Area, Oregon Cascade Range
BY JIM E. O’CONNORWinter 2013, 114:4
In August 1910, thirty-nine members of the Mazamas Mountaineering Club ascended the peaks of the Three Sisters in central Oregon. While climbing, geologist Ira A. Williams photographed the surrounding scenery, including images of Collier Glacier. One hundred years later, U.S. Geological Survey research hydrologist Jim E. O’Connor matched those documented photographs with present day images — the result of which is a stunning lapse of glacial change in the Three Sister region. O’Connor asserts that “glaciers exist by the grace of climate,” and through a close examination of the history of the region’s glaciers, he provides an intriguing glimpse into the history of geological surveys and glacial studies in the Pacific Northwest, including their connection to significant scientific advances of the nineteenth century. The work of scientists and mountaineers who have monitored and recorded glacier changes for over a century allows us to see dramatic changes in a landscape that is especially sensitive to ongoing climate change.
By Eliza E. Canty-Jones, Marcela Mendoza, Andrew H. Fisher, and Kimberly Jensen
Winter 2013, 114:4
The Oregon Historical Society's 2013 “Summer of Citizenship” lecture series brought together ten of the region's top scholars and civic leaders to speak on various aspects of citizenship, seeking to inform public understanding and debate over citizenship rights and responsibilities with a wide variety of historical and contemporary perspectives. The three talks published in this issue of the Oregon Historical Quarterly are a sampling of that series, offered as both record of the public lectures and documentation of research in progress.
Curiosity or Cure?: Chinese Medicine and American Orientalism in Progressive Era California and Oregon
BY TAMARA VENIT SHELTON
Fall 2013, Issue 114:3
Despite improved medicine and surgery techniques used by traditional doctors during the Progressive Era, many patients — particularly women —were drawn to “irregular” doctors. During the late 1890s, the American Medical Association launched an aggressive campaign against non-traditional doctors, finding in Chinese doctors and herbalists useful targets due to American Orientalist presumptions of racial inferiority. Drawing on advertisements, business cards, and promotional material produced by irregular doctors in California and Oregon, historian Tamara Venit Shelton argues that Chinese doctors and herbalists capitalized on their perceived exoticism and appropriated anti-Chinese stereotypes to forge ties with Euro-American and non-Chinese neighbors and patients — a devil’s bargain, as Chinese doctors limited themselves to the margins of American medicine.
by Christin Hancock
Summer 2013, 114:2
After becoming a Registered Nurse (RN) in 1968, Trudy Rice joined the ranks of thousands of professional African American women whose jobs required not only knowledge and technical skill in their chosen areas but also the ability to effectively respond to racism and prejudice in the workplace. In an interview conducted and introduced by historian Christin Hancock, Rice tells the story of her family coming to Oregon during World War II; studying at Portland Community College and becoming an RN; working in schools, hospitals, and as an inspector for the State of Oregon; and being faced with racism and responding to it with education. Hancock’s introduction places the story in the context of national and state history, arguing for its significance in a variety of fields.
BY LINDA TAMURA AND MARSHA TAKAYANAGI MATTHEWS
Summer 2013, 114:2
Japanese American units were heavily decorated during World War II and recently recognized with a Congressional Gold Medal, offering military service as their families and friends were incarcerated in camps by the federal government. After the war, many residents of Hood River, Oregon, discouraged Japanese American families and veterans from returning home. Historian Linda Tamura, who grew up in Hood River, and former Oregon Historical Society (OHS) Director of Museum Services Marsha Takayanagi Matthews are crafting an exhibit about that history to accompany a display of the Congressional Gold Medal at OHS in August and September 2013. The exhibit will ask visitors to consider how they would act in a similar situation.
“well and favorably known”: Deciphering Chinese Merchant Status in the Immigration Office of Astoria, Oregon, 1900–1924
BY AARON COE
SUMMER 2013, 114:2
Chinese were restricted from coming to, working in, and traveling to and from the United States by a series of federal exclusion laws that began in 1862 and peaked in 1924. Historian Aaron Coe examines how federal officials enforced those laws in Astoria, Oregon, from 1900 to 1924 through careful review of the immigration files. He finds that the reputations of individual Chinese people and firms significantly affected how their applications to travel and return, or to bring family members, would be received by agents. Coe concludes that immigration agents implicitly categorized Chinese as in good, poor, or ambiguous standing, concluding that exploring the individual reputations of Chinese and their relationships with immigration officers is crucial to understanding the history of Chinese exclusion laws in the United States.
by Leanne C. Serbulo & Karen J. Gibson
Spring 2013, 114:1
As in many cities across America, the relationship between African Americans in Portland, Oregon, and the city police force was fraught with tension through the late twentieth century. Scholars Leanne Serbulo and Karen Gibson argue that Portland’s African Americans, who collectively made up less than ten percent of Portland residents and were segregated into neighborhoods including the Albina district, experienced police as figures of colonial oppression. The authors chronicle how, over two decades bordered by African Americans’ deaths at the hands of police, neighborhood activists attempted to reform the police department and met resistance. The authors conclude that transformation of the relationship between police and the black community could have been accomplished only through strong action by elected officials.
BY WILLIAM F. WILLINGHAM
Spring 2013, 114:1
In 2013, the Oregon State Capitol celebrates its seventy-fifth anniversary as Oregon's seat of government. That building, the third incarnation of the Capitol, is unique due to architect Francis Keally's conscious decision to make it distinct among all other capitols. In a time when state seats of government were made to resemble the United States Capitol, Keally incorporated elements of what he called "Greek Moderne" but now is referred to as Art Deco into his blueprints. Architectural historian William F. Willingham reviews the building's key features - such as the flat-topped lantern in place of a traditional dome and the situating of Legislative chambers on the flanks to allow for natural lighting - that make the structure so exceptional.
by Henry Zenk
Winter 2012, 113:4
Drawing on the proficiency of native speakers of Chinuk Wawa, educators, and regional linguists, the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde published a Chinuk Wawa dictionary that both preserves the language and provides insight into the generational significance of its endurance. Linguist Henry Zenk relates his experience contributing to The New Chinuk Wawa Dictionary and describes the important familial relationships within the Grand Ronde community — past and present — that made the project possible.
BY PEGGY NAGAE
Fall 2012, 113:3
The influx of male Asian immigrants to Oregon beginning in the 1850s was encouraged by railroad, mining, and land developers looking for cheap labor. As immigrants settled more permanently in the region, however, anti-Asian sentiment took the form of exclusionary legislation and bureaucratic oppression, effectively denying first- and second-generation Asian residents the basic rights of citizenship. The effects of this repression were particularly devastating for Asian women, who were forced to negotiate the sexual bias and discrimination of their adopted home. Peggy Nagae examines how first- and second-generation Asian women in Oregon endured the stigma of sexual immorality during the anti-prostitution campaign by the state, the extraordinary lengths they went to in order to establish legitimacy in their marriages and residency statuses, and the legal battles they fought to gain rights as citizens of the United States..
by Janice Dilg
Fall 2012, 113:3
In this detailed description of the U.S. District Court of Oregon Historical Society Oral History Collection, Janice Dilg offers a glimpse into the remarkable professional achievements in law by Oregon women. By outlining the decades of legal inequities directed toward women — and the organized activism they employed to dismantle those inequities — Dilg places women’s personal stories preserved in the collection within their historical context. Excerpts from interviews with women such as Norma Paulus, Mercedes Deiz, Helen Frye, and Kristine Olson not only provide insight into the particular obstacles women have faced in the male-dominated legal profession but also reveal the value of the oral history collection to further our understanding of the effect women have had on Oregon’s legal and legislative landscape.
BY SHERI BARTLETT BROWNE
Fall 2012, 113:3
Sheri Bartlett Browne examines Frances Fuller Victor’s multifaceted contributions to the Oregon equal rights movement in the nineteenth century. Victor provided an intellectual foundation for women’s economic and political activism through her fiction and prose essays during the 1870s. She often wrote for Abigail Scott Duniway’s weekly newspaper, TheNew Northwest. Critiquing American gender norms, Victor argued forcefully that a deeply unequal social system condemned women to a subjugated status, eroding their socioeconomic and political opportunities and distorting their relationships with one another. Victor urged women to develop self-awareness and greater knowledge — to “investigate for themselves” — the intertwining roots of oppression in order to promote and achieve equal rights.
by Johanna Ogden
Summer 2012, 113:2
Historian Johanna Ogden explores the often overlooked but critical role of Punjabi laborers of Oregon in forming the radical Indian nationalist Ghadar Party in 1913. She addresses the international, national, and local forces behind the Punjabis’ migration to the state and the particular conditions they encountered once there. Framed by a series of post-9/11 concerns about the targeting of Arabs, Muslims, and South Asians, this article explores not only historical and social constructions of “us” and “them,” citizen and non-citizen, but the experience of Punjabi migrant laborers in remote Astoria, Oregon, where hardened racial and national lines were seemingly loosened.
By Gwendolyn Trice
SUMMER 2012, 113:2
The town of Maxville was once a logging town in Wallowa County, Oregon. Many African American families came from the South and Midwest to work in the Bowman-Hicks logging industry in Maxville in the 1920s. When the logging operation collapsed in the 1930s, the town was dismantled and the town disappeared. In 2008, Gwendolyn Trice—the daughter of an African American Maxville logger, Lucky Trice—founded the Maxville Heritage Interpretive Center (MHIC) in Wallowa, Oregon, to recover the history of the logging community in Maxville. Today the MHIC is highly active in community life. The center hosts the Annual Maxville Gathering, maintains partnerships with regional universities, is developing a musical play about Maxville with Marv Ross, and continues to invigorate the tourism industry in Wallowa County.
BY PETER A. KOPP
Winter 2011, 112:4
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, hops — a central ingredient in beer-making — were the most important specialty crop in the Willamette Valley. Farmers began planting the crop just after the Civil War, and success resulted from ideal environmental conditions, an established agricultural infrastructure that dated to the 1820s, new technologies including railroads, and unending cultural desires for beer. Oregon hops offered small farmers cash income and brewers near and far the spice of their beer. Historian Peter A. Kopp examines the environmental and cultural origins of the Willamette Valley hop industry, arguing that the specialty crop offered economic diversity and a strong sense of community for the region’s residents while at the same time connecting local agriculture to urban beer production as well as people and materials across the world.
by Marc D. Brown
Fall 2011, 112:3
People’s Food Store, now known as People’s Food Cooperative, opened in 1970 in a small southeast Portland building that had housed feed and grocery stores since 1911. Its business model — a collectively managed, cooperatively owned, natural-food store — reflected the anti-corporate attitude of its founding era. When People’s began, Portland hosted many cooperatively owned businesses, and some visionaries imagined a landscape filled with cooperatively owned businesses of all types. Although that vision has thus far failed to emerge, People’s continues working under the same business model, in the same neighborhood, forty-one years later. Marc D. Brown explores the history of People’s to provide a better understanding of the vision of those who advocated for community based businesses and of how People’s managed to survive where many other cooperatives founded at the same time did not.
The Trouble with Cross-Dressers: Researching and Writing the History of Sexual and Gender Transgressiveness in the Nineteenth-Century American West
BY PETER BOAG
Fall 2011, 112:3
Historian Peter Boag reflects on the methodological, linguistic, and historiographical difficulties, limitations, and breakthroughs he experienced while researching and writing his bookRe-Dressing America’s Frontier Past(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011). He also describes the ways journalists and dime novel authors, as well as historians and scientists, expunged from the story of the Old West the troubling gender and sexual identities associated with cross-dressing, as those story-tellers went about creating a myth of a wholly heterosexual American frontier at the turn of the twentieth century.
by Michael Orr and Morgen Young
Summer 2011, 112:2
In the spring of 1975, fourteen British soccer players moved to Oregon and joined the Portland Timbers in the North American Soccer League. Among them was Chris Dangerfield, a nineteen-year-old forward from the Birmingham area. During his two seasons with the Timbers, Dangerfield was an important players on the field and a wide-eyed observer of American and Oregonian life off it. In September 2010, he spoke with FC Media about his experiences at the infancy of professional soccer in Portland and the impact of those two years on his career and life.
BY KRISTINE DEACON
Summer 2011, 112:2
In this city-by-city retracing of Hayes’s visit, from Ashland to Astoria, author Kristine Deacon examines the symbolic power and prestige of the presidency, which Hayes used as a tool for restoring national harmony to a country still shattered after the end of the Civil War. Deacon describes Hayes’s redirection of the federal government’s Indian policy, examines the metamorphosis of presidential travel, and details how Hayes, who was accompanied by Commander of the Army General William T. Sherman, used the trip as a basis for reorganizing the U.S. Army and for advocating for greater federal involvement in stabilizing the Columbia River bar.
by Sheri Bartlett Browne
SPRING 2011, 112:1
Frances Fuller Victor (1826–1902) was a significant historian of Oregon and the Far West in the late nineteenth century. She already was a successful author before making her home in Oregon in 1864. Examining Victor’s poetry, essays, and travel accounts written as a young woman, historian Sheri Bartlett Browne makes two compelling claims: Victor’s life and writing must be placed within a larger cultural and historical context of American women’s literary contributions; and Victor’s early works form an important intellectual bridge to her later perceptive analyses of Oregon and the West.
BY PETER SLEETH
Spring 2011, 112:1
Tom Burns trooped into Portland in 1905 with a chip on his shoulder and a pile-driving desire to right social wrongs. Whether you called him a socialist, anarchist, or Roosevelt Democrat, Burns believed he had one mission in life: To ensure that everyone had enough before anyone had too much. Portland writer and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Peter Sleeth provides the most complete biography of Burns, who has made appearances in numerous historians’ works. Drawing on extensive newspaper and archival research, as well as personal memory and interviews, Sleeth demonstrates connections between Burns’s childhood in the Dickensian tenements of Liverpool, England, and his intellectual integrity and free speech fights and illustrates how Burns evolved from street-fighting activist into the type of middle-class radical that helped shape the city’s politics and mores from 1905 to 1957.
by Karl Vercouteren
Spring 2011, 112:1
History-minded citizens of The Dalles rescued the 1859 Original Wasco County Courthouse in the mid 1970s. Karl Vercouteren tells how the courthouse preservation group saved a building that played a major role in Eastern Oregon’s history and how they generate and preserve history through an annual forum that features local and regional historians. The collection of recordings of those speakers over a thirty-year period constitutes a treasury of resources that the Original Courthouse is making available to the public.
BY Zeb Larson
Spring 2011, 112:1
Environmentalism in the early twentieth century began with two movements: conservation and preservation. Conservation stressed the wise use of limited resources, while preservationists tried to protect wilderness areas from commercial developments. At the turn of the century, these two movements seemed to be in direct opposition to each other. Nevertheless, historian Zeb Larson argues, the values from both movements are evident in the creation of Silver Falls State Park, much of which was constructed as make-work projects during the Great Depression. Through restoring landscapes damaged by fire and logging, creating structures that blend with the landscape, and building youth camps, the park’s designers and managers drew on beliefs from both environmental ideologies as well as the aesthetics of the Arts and Crafts movement. Today, Silver Falls is the largest state park in Oregon.
“We’re going to defend ourselves” The Portland Chapter of the Black Panther Party and the Local Media Response
by Jules Boykoff and Martha Gies
Fall 2010, 111:3
The Portland chapter of the Black Panthers began in 1969, shortly after the organization was founded in Oakland, California, and proceeded to utilize the methods and tenants of the growing Black Panther movement to facilitate the advancement and protection of Portland’s African-American community. Martha Gies and Jules Boykoff analyze how the Portland chapter and its leaders were portrayed by the major local newspapers, the Oregonian and the Oregon Journal. They draw on detailed emerging media theory, primary media sources from the era (1969–1979), and interviews with prominent members of the Portland chapter (Kent Ford and Percy Hampton) to document and examine the Portland chapter’s community survival programs, confrontations between officials and activists, and the media response to both.
Betwixt and Between the Official Story: Tracing the History and Memory of a Family of French-Indian Ancestry in the Pacific Northwest
by Melinda Marie Jetté
Summer 2010, 111:2
Historian Melinda Marie Jetté utilizes multiple approaches — genealogical research, oral history, and investigation of archival collections — to discuss the assimilation of her French-Indian ancestry into the larger American experience. She reveals a pioneering Oregon family whose narrative overlaps with the more widely known public narratives of emigrant arrival, the inter-cultural fur trade, and the eventual non-Native dominance of society in the Pacific Northwest. Jette's discussion offers insights into the ways family histories may provide counter narratives that can broaden our understanding of the historical Oregon experience and its continuing impact today and makes suggestions about the interrelationship among history, memory, and identity.
by Ethan Johnson and Felicia Williams
Spring 2010, 111:1
Ethan Johnson and Felicia Williams trace the history of desegregation in Portland Public Schools from William Brown’s 1867 attempt to enroll his African-American children into elementary school to the Portland school closings and mandatory busing programs of the late twentieth century. They tell a complex story that often mirrors and is influenced by the trends of desegregation and multiculturalism in American society at large but also illustrates Oregon’s unique and complex history in regard to race relations. Johnson and William rely on exhaustive research at the archives of the Oregon Historical Society, Portland Public Schools, and the City of Portland as well as contemporary newspaper accounts to unearth an important history told only sporadically before.
BY TARA WATSON AND MELODY ROSE
Spring 2010, 111:1
Tara Watson and Melody Rose analyze the significant outpouring of feminist legislation passed by the 1973 Oregon Legislature, arguing that the work of talented and motivated female legislatures who spearheaded much of the legislation is only part of the explanation for their unique success. Utilizing many secondary sources on political history and theory and drawing on oral histories collected from members of the 1973 session, the authors re-evaluate this “second wave” of Oregon feminism. They conclude that preconceived notions of 1970s identity politics do not allow for a proper understanding of the complex way this particular group of women realized their objectives.
Moralistic Direct Democracy: Political Insurgents, Religion, and the State in Twentieth-Century Oregon
by Lawrence M. Lipin and William Lunch
Winter 2009, 110:4
Historian Lawrence Lipin and political scientist William Lunch discuss Oregon’s use of the initiative and referendum process, noting that direct democracy was used most often in Oregon in two distinct periods — at the beginning of the twentieth century and in the century’s final decades. The authors argue that the two periods were host to similar political grass-roots movements, characterized by a “populist moralism” in which Oregonians reacted against the perceived hegemony of an elite and moved to re-establish traditional values. Lipin and Lunch further note the ways populist political movements in both periods reignited long-standing political disagreements over the role of morality in Oregon public life.
Novel Views of the Aurora Colony: The Literary Interpretations of Cobie de Lespinasse and Jane Kirkpatrick
by James J. Kopp
Summer 2009, 110:2
Historian James J. Kopp discusses major works of historical fiction of Jane Kirkptrick and Cobie de Lespinasse, books that take place in the Aurora Colony in Oregon. He particularly notes the detailed research done by these authors, challenging a view that historical fiction cannot supplement the historical record. Kopp retraces the trail of the authors’ research through the archives of the Aurora Colony Historical Society and outlines the nuanced characterizations expressed by the authors of day to day life in the utopian community, noting the tendency of both to address areas of discourse not yet analyzed by historians, particularly having to do with women’s experience, thereby challenging readers and researchers to consider new understandings about life in the Aurora colony.
BY JANICE DILG
Spring 2009, 110:1
During the great labor disputes of the early twentieth century’s Progressive Era, Oregon became the seat for the first minimum wage law for women workers, due largely to the tireless championing of the cause by Caroline Glisan/Sister Miriam Theresa and organizations like the National Consumer League and the Catholic Women’s League. Historian Janice Dilg draws on Gleason’s own papers (including the Social Survey of Oregon labor that Gleason administered) and scholarly secondary sources to discuss the theoretical debates behind women’s protective legislation and the implications of that legislation as activists and courts pushed for and against equality among the sexes.
BY MEGAN K. FRIEDEL AND TERRY TOEDTEMEIER
Fall 2008, 109:3
In 1867, California photographer Carleton Watkins traveled throughout the Columbia River Gorge, creating now famous mammoth-plate photographs, as well as lesser known stereoviews, of the surrounding landscape. Those stereoview photographs, according to Friedel and Toedtemeier, tell a rich story of a landscape in flux, caught between Euro-American settlement of the pioneer era and an emerging modern era. Given the dynamism that has characterized interaction between humans, particularly Euro-Americans, and the Columbia River, Watkins’s prints show the river in a moment of perceived calm, yet on the brink of irrevocable change. The prints also tell the story of their creator’s personal relationships along the river.
BY MEGAN K. FRIEDEL
Fall 2008, 109:3
Megan K. Friedel details the Oregon Historical Society’s collection of photographs by Carleton Watkins. Although comprised principally of Watkins’s prints of Oregon and the Columbia River Gorge, OHS also houses many of Watkins’s portraits as well as work from California and other Western states. OHS’s collection shows the changing face of Oregon’s landscape and Watkins’s skilled artistry in capturing such a dynamic environment. Ultimately, OHS’s collection is evidence of the influence of Charles Beebe Turrill, the first person to substantially document Watkins’s accomplishments as a photographer.
BY ERIN MCCULLUGH PENEVA
Fall 2008, 109:3
A mainstay of Oregon history since 1928, Oregon Geographic Names now documents the stories behind over six thousand of the state’s place-names. Lewis A. “Tam” McArthur published the book’s first edition, and his son, Lewis L. McArthur, told stories in a 2006 interview about how his father researched, talked, and wrote letters to determine where the names originated. Historian Erin McCullugh Peneva introduces the narrative she created from that interview and gives context about why place-names are important embodiments of a community’s shared memory.
by Deborah M. Olsen
Summer 2008, 109:2
In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, women used the platform of world’s fairs to bring publicity to their work and to advance their interests. Women had traditionally worked separately from the men who organized and ran the fairs, but the 1904 St. Louis Exposition marked a shift toward integration. Men who led Portland’s 1905 world’s fair claimed they had embraced the new, integrationist model, but Deborah M. Olsen’s close study of newspaper articles, correspondence, and fair records reveals that Oregon’s women actually embraced the separatist model to achieve success on two projects — the annual convention of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and the commissioning and prominent display of a statue of Sacajawea. Olsen’s research also highlights the contributions of Sarah Evans, a journalist whose work on the two projects helped lay the foundation for the successful 1912 Oregon woman suffrage campaign.
SUMMER 2008, 109:2
These three essays — published as a compliment to the Oregon Historical Society Exhibit, Oregon’s Legacy: The New Deal at 75 — consider the effect of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal programs on Oregon. The authors describe the political and social context of the Great Depression in Oregon, the tangible results of New Deal programs in Oregon — such as roads, bridges, trails and accommodations in National Forests and State Parks, Bonneville Dam, and Timberline Lodge — and the shifts in outlook program administrators hoped to achieve. They all conclude that the citizens employed by such agencies as the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Works Progress Administration, and the Federal Arts Project left a significant mark on Oregon.
BY GENEVIEVE J. LONGSpring 2008, 109:1
With a focus on the leadership of conductor Jacques Singer, writer Genevieve J. Long documents the major changes that the Oregon Symphony underwent during the 1960s. Drawing on newspaper articles, interviews with musicians, and surveys conducted by the symphony organization, Long argues that Singer aided the organization’s fundraising and publicity goals but also aggravated musicians and colleagues who found him “difficult, even abusive.” Long concludes that the controversy surrounding Singer’s eventual departure is a significant incidence of public dialogue about music and cultural institutions.
BY CHARLES F. SAMS III
Winter 2007, 108:4
Through a story about the creation of humans, told by Native river people of N'Chi Wana or Columbia River, and remembrances of fishing with his grandfather on the Columbia River, Charles F. Sams highlights the importance Native people keeping their "promise to preserve, protect, enhance, and sustain the return of salmon to the Columbia River."
“Neither Head nor Tail to the Campaign” Esther Pohl Lovejoy and the Oregon Woman Suffrage Victory of 1912
by Kimberly Jensen
Fall 2007, 108:3
In February 1913, Oregon suffragist, physician, and public health activist Esther Clayson Pohl Lovejoy summed up Oregon’s 1912 woman suffrage victory for the Woman’s Progressive Weekly: “It was pre-eminently a campaign of young women, impatient of leadership, and they worked just about as they liked — and that is how they will vote. There was certainly neither head nor tail to the campaign.”
Summer 2007, 108:2
From the Summer 2007 issue, this special section includes four articles: Tectonic History and Cultural Memory Catastrophe and Restoration on the Oregon Coast by R. Scott Byram, Tsunamis and Floods in Coos Bay Mythology by Patricia Whereat Phillips, Weaving Long Ropes: Oral Tradition and Understanding the Great Tide by Jason T. Younker, and Native American Vulnerability and Resiliency to Great Cascadia Earthquakes by Robert J. Losey
By VALERIE BROWN
Summer 2007, 108:2
From the sidewalk, it looks like nothing — just a door with a little sign above it. You go down some stairs and pay somebody fifty cents to let you into a low-ceilinged, murky room filled with about a dozen wooden wire-spool tables slathered with varathane. A homemade ceramic ashtray sits on each table. You go to the counter and get a bottomless cup of coffee for fifteen cents, then commandeer a table six feet away from the ten-bytwelve- foot stage. The room fills up with people and cigarette smoke blended with an occasional whiff of marijuana, incense, and burnt cheese. You hear the first notes on the guitar, the first unpolished, good-natured singing and the sweet harmonies, and you forget the funkiness of your surroundings. The music is playing, and you are right up close.
By Dale Skovgaard
Spring 2007, 108:1
On Memorial Day, May 30, 1948, Vanport — a city of 18,000 people — was destroyed in the matter of a few hours by floodwaters from Smith Lake and the Columbia River, which broke through the SP&S north-south railroad line landfill. As I began to write this article, the memories and images of that day came back to me so clearly that it seemed like it happened only yesterday.
BY BY CAROLE GLAUBER
Spring 2007, 108:1
In this research article, Carole Glauber documents Lily E. White and Sarah Hall Ladd’s legacy as photographers and friends. During the early twentieth century they were involved with “the Oregon Camera Club and the nascent photographic movement,” where they “cultivated opportunities for personal promotion that intersected with Portland's rise in regional and national status.”
“As Citizens of Portland We Must Protest”: Beatrice Morrow Cannady and the African American Response to D.W. Griffith’s “Masterpiece”
BY KIMBERLEY MANGUN
Fall 2006, 107:3
The Birth of a Nation, a film about the Civil War, reconstruction, and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan, became a focal point for debate about race relations in Portland each time in played in the city, in 1915, 1918, and 1922. Beatrice Morrow Cannady was editor of the African American newspaper, the Advocate, and vehemently opposed the showing of the film. Historian Kimberley Mangun uses Cannady’s public contempt for the film’s portrayal of African Americans to illustrate the broader goal of Cannady, and countless others, to promote respect between whites and African Americans.
BY R. GREGORY NOKES
Fall 2006, 107:3
R. Gregory Nokes tells the story of the murder of as many as thirty-four Chinese miners by a gang of seven horse thieves at a place in Hells Canyon, which has been designated “Chinese Massacre Cove” by the Oregon Geographic Names Board. Drawing on recently uncovered primary material, Nokes patches together the tale of the crime and the acquittal of three gang members who were arrested and charged with murder and places the events in the global context of relationships between American and Chinese citizens and governments.
BY LEWIS L. MCARTHUR
FALL 2006, 107:3
In 1938, Lewis L. McArthur, a recent graduate of the University of California, went to work as a salesman for the Columbia Steel Company, a subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation in Portland. His memories of the three years he spent working there depict the buildings, systems, and people that were involved with selling steel for some of the largest construction projects in the Pacific Northwest.
by Rebecca J. Dobkins
Fall 2006, 107:3
Drawing from conversations with the artist about his life and work, Rebecca J. Dobkins gives readers insight into the foundations and purposes of Rick Bartow’s stunning drawing and sculpture. “Accepting his invitation to see more carefully and to feel connections more deeply,” she writes, “brings us a greater understanding of this place we now call Oregon.”
“Cast Aside the Automobile Enthusiast” Class Conflict, Tax Policy, and the Preservation of Nature in Progressive-Era Oregon
by Lawrence M. Lipin
Summer 2006, 107:2
Lawrence Lipin examines the role that socio-economic considerations and progressive politics played in early twentieth-century debates over land use, taxation, and the construction of the Columbia River Highway. In his analysis of the Oregon single-tax movement, Lipin details the concerted efforts of political radicals and labor activists, such as William S. U’ren, Otto Hartwig, and George Henry, to encourage the productive development of land and to challenge the privileged status of corporate landholdings. The author also examines the ways in which producerist and progressive groups reorganized in the wake of several unsuccessful single-tax initiatives to oppose the construction of the scenic Columbia River Highway.
Spring 2006, Issue 107:1
By Jack Berry
Spring 2006, Issue 107:1
By Floy Pepper and Eliza Elkins Jones
By Eliza Elkins Jones
Summer 2005, 106:2
In this Oregon Voices piece, Eliza Elkins Jones shares an interview she conducted with George W. Aguilar, Sr., a Warm Springs tribal elder, about the research, writing, and editing that went into his book, When the River Ran Wild! Indian Traditions on the Mid-Columbia and the Warm Springs Reservation (published in June 2005 by the Oregon Historical Society press. As Jones describes, the “book is an exceptionally personal work of historical scholarship” and the article includes stories Aguilar shares with the hope that they will “provide the next generations a continuity with the past, giving them a historically grounded identity like what he was able to develop growing up in Wolford Canyon on the Warm Springs Reservation.”
Completing Lewis and Clark’s Westward March: Exhibiting a History of Empire at the 1905 Portland World’s Fair
by Lisa Blee
Summer 2005, 106:2
Lisa Blee explicates the complexities and conundrums of American culture and the legacy of American expansionism set in motion with Lewis and Clark’s expeditionary westward march. The Lewis and Clark Exposition — Portland’s 1905 World’s Fair — functioned both as a celebration of America’s historical progress and as tacit justification for further colonial and economic ambitions. The subject matter and peoples on display at the fair, reflective of the romantic historicism of Frederick Jackson Turner, provided tangible links to an acceptable past and emotional testaments to the supremacy of the American way of life in the face of an ever-expanding world marketplace.
by Ives Goddard and Thomas Love
Summer 2004, 105:2
Linguist Ives Goddard and anthropologist Thomas Love combined efforts in the latest attempt to determine the meaning of the name Oregon. They argue that “The evidence we have uncovered for the origin of Oregon in the Algonquian languages of New England supplies the missing link between [Robert] Rogers and a plausible linguistic source.” Using seventeenth- and eighteenth-century maps, Rogers’s journals, and detailed study of Algonquian languages, the scholars make an argument for the Northeastern origins of the name of this far western state.
Does Portland Need a Homophile Society? Gay Culture and Activism in the Rose City between World War II and Stonewall
by Peter Boag
Spring 2004, 105:1
Gays and lesbians in Portland lagged behind their counterparts in other areas of the United States in efforts to organize politically around civil rights issues. Historian Peter Boag considers why this was the case, comparing gay activism in Portland with activities in Seattle and, to a lesser extent, Tacoma, Denver, and San Francisco. Concentrating on the period between World War II and 1969, Boag addresses the influx of young people into cities such as Portland and into the military during World War II, bar culture, political and media concerns about gays and lesbians as “sexual deviants,” and the establishment of homophile organizations such as the Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis.
by Joseph E. Taylor III
Spring 2004, 105:1
Herbert Hoover is too often portrayed simplistically as an exemplar of Republican policies during the 1920s. Examining Hoover's management of the western fisheries during his tenure as secretary of the Department of Commerce during the 1920s, Joseph Taylor argues that Hoover's actions and his legacy are more complex than they are often presented. Taylor presents four examples of Hoover's management style: his reorganization of the industry and the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, the reorientation of scientific studies undertaken by the bureau, the management of salmon fisheries in Alaska, and the negotiation of fishery treaties.
By Michael McKenzie
Winter 2003, 104:4
Artifacts have the potential to inform historians about the past in ways that written records cannot. Recently, the Oregon Historical Society acquired a basalt rock inscribed with the date 1811 and a cross, originally found near the headwaters of the Middle Fork of the John Day River. Michael McKenzie uses historical data, primary documents, and technological techniques to hypothesize that members of the expedition sponsored by John Jacob Astor and led by Wilson Price Hunt in 1811-1812 may have inscribed the rock. Through his detailed explanation of the process by which artifacts are interpreted, McKenzie makes an argument for the contribution of artifact study to historians’ understanding of a sense of place.
York of the Corps of Discovery: Interpretations of York’s Character and His Role in the Lewis and Clark Expedition
by Darrell M. Millner
Fall 2003, 104:3
The celebration of the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial has stimulated much academic and public discussion about the Corps of Discovery and its exploration of the West. During the past two hundred years, much has been written about expedition members’ scientific observations, the political implications of their explorations, and the cultural consequences of contact between the Corps members and the indigenous populations they encountered. Considerably less attention has been paid to the sole black member of the Corp—York, the slave of William Clark. Professor Darrell Millner adds to the sparse literature on York by documenting his contributions to the expedition, examining the “racial realities and dynamics of American life” at the time, and scrutinizing “how York is portrayed in the scholarly and popular writing that has been published in the two hundred years since 1805–1806.” Millner incorporates recent documentation that challenges long-standing ideas regarding the status of York as a slave and his relationship with Clark in the post-expedition period.
By Jeffry Uecker
Winter 2002, 103:4
At its most basic level, the Lewis and Clark Expedition is an account of nearly three dozen adventurers — a “Corps of Discovery” — who traversed a continent, from Missouri to Oregon, to gather information for a curious and ambitious president and public in the East. More deeply, it is a mythic tale, a story that provides meaning and relevance to experiences and life. This tale has helped shape the identity of Oregonians and Americans for almost two hundred years.
By Scott Byram and David G. Lewis
Summer 2001, 102:2
In this research article, authors Scott Byram and David G. Lewis explore the origins of the name Oregon, a name that for years had been elusive to many historians. In “addressing the source of the place name” and exploring “the extent of indigenous geographic knowledge and cultural interaction across the North American continent during the eighteenth century,” Byram and Lewis uncover “new aspects of the history of pre-colonial indigenous cultures in the North American West” through research that contributes “to a redefinition of indigenous history, which has so often been dismally portrayed.”
The Broken Crucible of Assimilation: Forest Grove Indian School and the Origins of Off-Reservation Boarding-School Education in the West
by Cary C. Collins
Winter 2000, 101:4
On February 25, 1880, with a student body of fourteen Native boys and four Native girls, the Forest Grove Indian School officially opened on Pacific University’s campus. It was the first off-reservation boarding school for Indians west of the Mississippi River. In this article, Cary C. Collins explores the “human drama that unfolded as federal officials imposed assimilative education in the Pacific Northwest” through select correspondence from 1880 through 1884. The letters, she explains, “offer a glimpse into the contact that existed among students, parents, and school personnel as the government carried out its efforts to remake Indians in the dominant Euroamerican image.”
by Monroe Sweetland
Fall 2000, 101:3
Monroe Sweetland, an Oregon journalist and legislator, wrote this article about the significance of the 1960 Oregon Primary for presidential hopeful John F. Kennedy. Sweetland begins: “Friday May 20, 1960, was a judgment day which could bring impetus or disaster for the Kennedy-for-President campaign — the Democratic Primary in Oregon.” Although Kennedy had political backers in many states, Oregon wasn’t one of them. After an early start to the state campaign and recruiting key supporters, Kennedy “convinced lingering doubters,” by winning the last significant primary before the national convention.
By Steve M. Wyatt
Summer 1994, 95:2
Steve M. Wyatt follows the circuitous ninety-year history of an ultimately unsuccessful agricultural and manufacturing industry, based on a crop ideally suited to the Willamette Valley's climate and geography. The course and fate of the state's flax and linen industry offer key lessons in Oregon's twentieth-century economic history.
by William F. Willingham
Summer 1994, 95:2
By the 1870s, much of the fertile land in the Willamette Valley had been claimed, and a second wave of migrants to eastern Oregon sought a future in the recently opened bunchgrass rangeland. Who were these settlers? What were their cultural, ethnic, and demographic characteristics? What role did women play in the process? Did family structure in these communities change over time? William F. Willingham discusses how some of these questions can be found in the federal decennial census schedules.
By Robert Boyd
Spring 1994; 95:1
Measles in the Pacific Northwest was first recorded on July 23, 1847, at Fort Nez Perces. It was likely brought there by Indians traveling back from California, where an outbreak had just started, and spread to Oregon by way of overland migrants to Fort Vancouver and south through the Willamette Valley. In “The Pacific Northwest Measles Epidemic of 1847–1848,” published in the Spring 1994 issue of the Oregon Historical Quarterly, anthropologist Robert Boyd documents the epidemic and its spread. The measles epidemic contributed to significant losses in Native communities, up to forty percent of some Tribes died. These losses contributed to fear and suspicion among Native communities toward whites, and is recognized as a catalyst for violence during that time period.
By Charles F. Gould
Fall 1976, 77:3
The greatest influx of Italians to the United States occurred between 1800 and World War I. In this article, author Charles F. Gould documents the lives of Portland's Italian residents and answers questions these questions: "From what specific region in Italy did they emigrate? Why did they choose Portland? And what did they do when they got here?
Summer 1976, 77:2
To mark the U.S. Bicentennial in 1976, the Oregon Historical Quarterly presented a set of photos commemorating national, state, and local celebrations held in the OHS collections. During time periods when “professional entertainers were scarce, and there were no radios or TV sets,” lodges, churches, schools, and more celebrated with parades, footraces, nighttime illumination, and boat races.
By Lewis E. Judson
Fall 1974, 75:3
In his introduction, Willamette Valley historian Lewis E. Judson describes: “There are today young people in our midst who have not seen a horse at work.” In this OHQ article, Judson “records for future generations” the history of work horses in Oregon and their “usefulness to man.”
By Ivan M. Wolley
Fall 1963, 64:3
Ivan M. Woolley documents the virus's progression and Oregon's response. In it are striking parallels to current events, including school closures, public gathering bans, and even debates about the effectiveness of masks to contain the spread.