Winter 2021

Issue 122:4

In this special issue of OHQ, “Chinese Diaspora in Oregon,” authors contribute to a growing body of work that documents early Chinese residents’ role in shaping Oregon’s development as well as reclaims their place in the history of the state.

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In this Issue

Erasure and Reclamation: Centering Diasporic Chinese Populations in Oregon History

by Jennifer Fang

This essay provides an overview of early Chinese American history and introduces the key themes of the Oregon Historical Quarterly special issue on the Chinese diaspora in Oregon. It asserts that the history of Chinese people in Oregon should be centered within the state’s history because doing so compels a rethinking of Oregon’s earliest waves of colonization and economic, political, and social development. The articles in this special issue illustrate how Chinese people were transnational historical actors, navigating a social and cultural terrain that was often unwelcoming and oppressive. They humanize early Chinese settlers in ways that avoid reliance on, or reinforcement of, Orientalist stereotypes and Eurocentrist assumptions as well as a tendency to reduce Chinese immigrant experiences to either resistance or victimization. Each contribution in this special issue helps undo nearly two centuries of erasure and reclaims the place of Chinese people in the history of Oregon.

《抹杀和复原:聚焦俄勒冈史上的离散华人群体》 (Erasure and Reclamation: Centering Diasporic Chinese Populations in Oregon History)

Jennifer Fang 著

本文纵览早期在美华人历史,简要介绍《俄勒冈州历史季刊》(Oregon Historical Quarterly) 特刊围绕俄勒冈离散华人主题收录的专题文章。特刊主张俄勒冈州华人史应当成为俄勒冈历史的聚焦中心,因为这会迫使人们反思俄勒冈最早的殖民化以及经济、政治和社会发展浪潮。特刊文章详实论述了华人群体如何一步步成为跨国历史角色,在时常充斥着冷待压迫的社会文化环境下前行。行文着意避免依赖或强化东方主义刻板印象和欧洲中心主义假设,避开误区倾向,不将华人移民际遇简单归结为抵抗或受害,从而为早期华人定居者赋予人性化色彩。本期的每篇文章均有助于消除对华人近两个世纪的抹杀,复原华人在俄勒冈历史上的地位。

Language Methodology

by Erin E. Brasell

This methodology section provides readers with a brief summary of editors’ decisions about how and where to include Chinese language in this special issue as well as the traditions and complexities of documenting Chinese Americans’ names. The languages and traditions that Chinese people have brought to the United States have shaped communities across the state and are crucial to understanding and documenting Oregon’s Chinese diaspora. For place names in China, this special issue includes a Mandarin (Pinyin) romanization followed by traditional Chinese characters and a Cantonese romanization. A Chinese translation of the introduction essay as well as all article abstracts will be available online, and will be in simplified characters to make them accessible to a wide readership.

《语言方法论》 (Language Methodology)

Erin E. Brasell 著


Chinese Mining Kongsi in Eastern Oregon: A Case Study of Cultural Amnesia

by Don Hann

This research article draws on transnational histories of Chinese mining companies to argue that biases of the dominant Euro-American population diminished the contribution of Chinese immigrants to the formation of modern Oregon. Chinese immigrants who were highly skilled at the art and science of gold mining dominated placer gold mining in eastern Oregon during the nineteenth century. For over a century, however, historical narratives have generally portrayed them as unskilled laborers subsisting on scraps of gold recovered by rewashing the waste rocks abandoned by white miners. Chinese miners from Guangdong Province had worked in southeast Asia for a century before the discovery of gold in Oregon. By the time Chinese miners reached eastern Oregon in the 1860s, they were experienced at moving people, supplies, and gold over great distances in foreign lands. Following the established practice, most Chinese miners in eastern Oregon worked in partnerships wherein they earned a share of the profits, instead of wages. Several nineteenth-century documents accurately describe these Chinese mining partnerships in eastern Oregon, and as author Don Hann argues, the disconnect between those earlier depictions of Chinese mining companies and the later portrayal of the Chinese as unskilled laborers is a form of cultural amnesia.

《俄勒冈东部的华人矿业公司:文化失忆案例研究》(Chinese Mining Kongsi in Eastern Oregon: A Case Study of Cultural Amnesia)

Don Hann 著

这篇研究文章从华人矿业公司的跨国营商史出发,主张占主导地位的欧裔人口的偏见削弱了华人移民对现代俄勒冈成型的贡献。十九世纪,精通采金技艺的华人移民主导了俄勒冈东部的砂金开采。然而,百余年来,史话常将华人描摹为非技术劳工,以重洗白人矿工遗弃的废石,回收黄金残渣为生。在俄勒冈发现黄金之前,来自广东省的华人矿工已在东南亚采矿百余年。华人矿工在十九世纪六十年代来到俄勒冈东部时,在异国远距离搬运人员、物资和黄金方面已经很有经验。按照惯例,俄勒冈东部的华人矿工大多合伙作业,赚取利润分成而非工资。十九世纪的多份文献准确描述了俄勒冈东部的华人采矿合伙企业,正如作者 Don Hann 所言,早期对华人矿业的描摹与后来华人身上贴附的非技术劳工标签彼此脱节,这是一种文化失忆症。

Stacked Rock Features: Archaeological Evidence of Chinese Miners on the Malheur National Forest

by Katee Withee

In this Research Files article, Katee Withee of the Malheur National Forest shares recent research (conducted in partnership with the Oregon Chinese Diaspora Project) related to the homes and lifestyles of nineteenth- and twentieth-century immigrant Chinese gold miners in eastern Oregon. Withee describes the archaeological and documentary evidence related to stacked rock hearth features, which researchers believe may be unique to Chinese habitation. Exploring the homes of Chinese gold miners provides insight into their lives and experiences, allowing readers to reimagine the history of Oregon’s Grant County.

《堆叠岩石特征:马卢尔国家森林中的华人矿工考古证据》(Stacked Rock Features: Archaeological Evidence of Chinese Miners on the Malheur National Forest)

Katee Withee 著

在这篇研究档案文章中,来自马卢尔国家森林 (Malheur National Forest) 的 Katee Withee 分享了近期研究成果(与俄勒冈华人侨民项目联合研究),内容涉及十九至二十世纪俄勒冈东部华人移民淘金者的家园与生活方式。Withee 介绍了有关堆叠岩石炉灶特征的考古和文献证据,研究人员认为这有可能是华人住所的独有特征。通过探索华人淘金者家园,读者可以深入了解华人的生活际遇,重新构想俄勒冈州格兰特县的历史。

The Buck Rock Tunnel Archaeological Site: Documenting Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Oregon & California Railroad

by Terrance Christian, Chelsea Rose, Lisa Rice, Aaron Ennis, and Duane Ericson

The history of the Buck Rock Tunnel captures in microcosm some of the larger themes that are characteristic of the greater Oregon and California Railroad story — including those of progress, industrialization and infrastructure development, mismanagement and fraud, as well as the details of daily life during the execution of such a major undertaking. Using fieldwork, remote sensing, and documentary research, collaborators on a public archaeology and history project are reconstructing the social, economic, and technical history of the Oregon and California Railroad’s Siskiyou Line, particularly as revealed in the abandoned Buck Rock Tunnel. This landscape-scale investigation has identified portions of the original tunnel, railroad grade, and associated work camps, providing a better understanding of the ways Chinese migrants accessed, lived, and worked at this remote site. Because the tunnel was abandoned mid-construction, the article’s authors can glean a host of otherwise invisible technical insights about the methods and technology employed by laborers and project engineers. This research article shifts the historical discussion of railroad construction in southern Oregon from the high-level realm of financiers and capital to the story of the people on the ground, humanizing railroad construction by providing insight into the people who made it possible — namely, Chinese railroad workers.

《巴克岩隧道考古遗址:华工及俄勒冈和加利福尼亚铁路建设纪实》(The Buck Rock Tunnel Archaeological Site: Documenting Chinese Laborers and the Construction of the Oregon & California Railroad)

Terrance Christian、Chelsea Rose、Lisa Rice、Aaron Ennis 和 Duane Ericson 合著

巴克岩隧道 (Buck Rock Tunnel) 的历史是俄勒冈和加利福尼亚铁路故事宏大主题的缩影——囊括了发展进步,工业化和基础设施发展,管理不善和欺诈,乃至在这一重大工程执行期间的日常生活细节。公共考古与历史项目的合作者们结合实地考察、遥感和文献研究,正在重建俄勒冈和加利福尼亚铁路锡斯基尤线 (Siskiyou Line) 的社会史、经济史和技术史,特别融合了废弃的巴克岩隧道揭示的一段历史。这项景观尺度的调研已经认定了部分原有隧道、铁道路基和相关劳工营地,深入探知了华人移民在这一偏远地区出入、生活和劳作的方式。由于隧道施工未完即被废弃,本文作者有幸收集到本来难以探知的丰富技术见解,涉及到劳工和项目工程师所采用的方法和技术。这篇研究文章将俄勒冈南部铁路建设的历史讨论从金融家和资本的高层领域转向基层个体的故事,通过深入挖掘使铁路建设成为可能的个体——即华人铁路劳工,赋予铁路建设人性化的意味。

“Bona Fide Merchants”: Negotiating Life, Labor, and Transnational Mobility in the Time of Chinese Exclusion

by Chelsea Rose, Jacqueline Y. Cheung, and Eric Gleason

From 1875 until 1943, various policies increasingly circumscribed the free movement of Chinese immigrants into and within the United States. These efforts had a profound and lasting impact on the Chinese diaspora in the Pacific Northwest and divided the Chinese community into two distinct classes: laborers and a privileged class that included merchants. The authors of this research article argue that merchant businesses served a critical and multifaceted role in the formation, development, and decline of rural Chinatowns and in the lives of Chinese Oregonians who used the businesses to facilitate resistance and community persistence. Attaining officially recognized merchant status offered certainty and stability, as well as social and mobility, providing immigrants and their families with opportunities for prosperity in a largely unwelcoming land. The Wing Hong Hai Company Store (永同泰) in The Dalles (姐里阜) and the Wah Chung and Company Store (和昌) in Ashland each played important roles in the maintenance of Oregon’s Chinese diaspora communities. On the surface, they bought and sold goods and services; in reality, these transnational establishments did so much more as they navigated the waters of Chinese exclusion.

《真正的商人:排华时期的生活、劳动和跨国流动谈判》("Bona Fide" Merchants: Negotiating Life, Labor, and Transnational Mobility in the Time of Chinese Exclusion)

Chelsea Rose、Jacqueline Y. Cheung 和 Eric Gleason 合著

1875 年至 1943 年间,政策频频出台,日益限制华人移民来美和在美境内的自由流动。这些举措对流散于西北太平洋地区的华人造生了深远持久的影响,将华人社群割裂为两个分立阶层:劳工以及包含商人在内的特权阶层。这篇研究文章的作者认为,在乡村唐人街的形成、发展和衰落中,在俄勒冈华人的生活中,华商扮演的角色关键且多面,俄勒冈华人利用华商企业,促进抵抗和社群的长久延续。获得官方承认的商人身份就是吃下了定心丸,是安稳的保证,也是社会保障和通行证,为移民及其家庭提供了在冷眼之下繁荣立业的机会。达尔斯(姐里阜)的 Wing Hong Hai Company Store(永同泰)以及阿什兰的 Wah Chung and Company Store(和昌)都在维护俄勒冈华人社群方面发挥了重要作用。着眼表层,它们交易商品和劳务;而实际上,这些跨越国界的实业为安度排华时期做了很多贡献。

Rediscovering Toy Kee’s True Son: Chinese Immigration and Federal Bureaucracy Documented in Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files

by Trish Hackett Nicola

Who was the true son of Toy Kee? In this Research Files essay, author Trish Hackett Nicola explores the lives of two young men of Chinese descent who both claimed to U.S. immigration officials that they were Toy Kee's son. While the article explores the fate of these two individuals, there are thousands more similar stories held in Chinese Exclusion Act case files held in the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Through U.S. immigration documentation and witness statements, Nicola documents how enforcement of the Exclusion Act limited the ability of Chinese laborers to enter, or re-enter, the United States as well as the efforts people made to navigate, and sometimes subvert, the system.

《重探 Toy Kee 真正的儿子:排华法案案卷中记录的华人移民和联邦官僚机构》(Rediscovering Toy Kee’s True Son: Chinese Immigration and Federal Bureaucracy Documented in Chinese Exclusion Act Case Files)

Trish Hackett Nicola 著

谁才是 Toy Kee 真正的儿子?在这篇研究档案文章中,作者 Trish Hackett Nicola 探讨了两个华裔年轻人的人生,他们都向美国移民局官员自称是 Toy Kee 的儿子。这篇文章探讨的是两个人的命运,但在美国国家档案和记录管理局 (NARA) 留存的《排华法案》案卷中,类似的故事还有成千上万。参照美国移民文件和证人证词,Nicola 记载了《排华法案》的施行如何限制了华工入境或返归美国,以及华人如何努力驾驭、有时甚至是破坏这一制度。

Searching for Salem’s Early Chinese Community

by Kimberli Fitzgerald, Kirsten Straus, and Kylie Pine

Did Salem, Oregon, have a Chinatown during the late 1800s? In this research article, Kimberli Fitzgerald, Kirsten Straus, and Kylie Pine document their three-year investigation to answer to this question. The authors worked with a local advisory committee, including historians, members of Salem’s Chinese community, and representatives from the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, the Hoy Yin Association, Friends of the Salem Pioneer Cemetery, and Willamette University. Collectively, the group learned that Salem had a thriving Chinatown for many years that included community leader George Lai Sun and several prominent families. An archaeological team also uncovered a funerary table in Salem’s Pioneer Cemetery, one of very few physical remnants of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century community. Together, the project committee and today’s Salem Chinese community reinstated the funerary table's use in the annual Qingming festival. 

《探寻塞勒姆早期华人社区》(Searching for Salem’s Early Chinese Community)

Kimberli Fitzgerald、Kirsten Straus 和 Kylie Pine 著

俄勒冈州塞勒姆在十九世纪末有唐人街吗?在这篇研究文章中,Kimberli Fitzgerald、Kirsten Straus 和 Kylie Pine 记录了他们为解答这一问题而开展的三年调查。作者联合当地咨询委员会,包括历史学家、塞勒姆华人社区的成员,以及来自中华会馆 (Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association)、海宴同乡会 (Hoy Yin Association)、塞勒姆先锋公墓之友 (Friends of the Salem Pioneer Cemetery) 和威拉米特大学的代表。这一团体调研并了解到,塞勒姆曾有过繁盛多年的唐人街,社区领袖 George Lai Sun 和多个显赫家族都是唐人街的一份子。考古小组还在塞勒姆先锋公墓发现了一张祭台,这是十九世纪末至二十世纪初社区留存的为数不多的实物遗迹之一。项目委员会联合如今的塞勒姆华人社区,恢复了每年清明祭扫使用祭台的传统。

Portland’s Louie Chung (1876–1926)

by Myron Louie Lee

Louie Chung arrived in Oregon during a time of widespread individual and institutional anti-Chinese racism in Oregon. Defying the odds against him for survival and success, he became a respected and influential Portland businessman, family man, land owner, and philanthropist who was equally at ease in both Portland’s white and Chinese societies. While redefining his own identity and meaning of home and family, he continued to be anchored by his strong Taishan (Toisan) roots of language, culture, and traditions. Drawing on family stories and primary documents, the author (Louie Chung’s grandson) traces this remarkable journey and opens a window onto the vibrant and sometimes violent life of Portland’s Old Chinatown.

《波特兰的 Louie Chung(1876—1926)》[Portland’s Louie Chung (1876–1926)]

Myron Louie Lee 著

Louie Chung 来到俄勒冈时,正值州中个人和机构反华种族主义猖獗的时期。他克服了生存和成功道路上的艰险,成为受人尊敬、有影响力的波特兰商人、顾家男、土地主和慈善家,在波特兰的白人社会和华人社会中同样游刃有余。在重新定义自我身份以及家与家庭的意义的同时,他继续立身于强大的台山语言、文化和传统根基。作者(Louie Chung 的孙子)借家族故事和一手文献,追溯这段非凡历程,为读者开启一扇窗,一窥波特兰旧日唐人街蓬勃生动、时而又激烈跌宕的生活。

Longevity: The Archaeology of a Chinese Gift Store and Restaurant in Eugene, Oregon’s, Market District

by Christopher L. Ruiz, Marlene Jampolsky, and Jon C. Krier

In this Oregon Places feature, authors Christopher Ruiz, Marlene Jampolsky, and Jon Krier explore an unknown chapter of Chinese diaspora history in Eugene, Oregon. Recent construction in downtown Eugene revealed Chinese ceramics associated with a restaurant and gift shop that was operated by Wing Kee Westfall and Marie Westfall from about 1912 to 1928. Local newspaper advertisements and articles indicate they successfully marketed their businesses to a largely Euro-American clientele.  As Americans began to embrace exoticized Asian goods and food during the nineteenth century, practicing a form orientalism, they rejected many Asian immigrants, enacting restrictive Chinese exclusion laws codified in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The story of the Westfalls’ thriving businesses in a community that was almost exclusively Euro-American adds to our understanding of that broader narrative, and Marie Westfall’s story illustrates the changing roles of Chinese women in the United States and abroad.

《长存:考古俄勒冈尤金市场区的华人礼品店和餐馆》(Longevity: The Archaeology of a Chinese Gift Store and Restaurant in Eugene, Oregon’s, Market District)

Christopher L. Ruiz、Marlene Jampolsky 和 Jon C. Krier 著

在这篇俄勒冈地方专题文章中,作者 Christopher Ruiz、Marlene Jampolsky 和 Jon Krier 探寻了俄勒冈尤金市华人侨民史上的一段未知篇章。尤金市中心最近在施工中发现了与一家餐馆和礼品店有关的中国瓷器,这家店铺由 Wing Kee Westfall 和 Marie Westfall 在 1912 至 1928 年间经营。当地报纸刊载的广告和文章表明,两位店主成功地向以欧美裔为主的顾客群推销业务。美国人自十九世纪起逐步接受异国风情的亚洲商品和食物,践行一种东方主义,但他们大幅排斥亚裔移民,制定了限制性排华法律,并在十九世纪至二十世纪早期编纂入典。在一个几乎欧裔专属的社区中,Westfalls 家族繁荣兴业的故事增进了我们对这段史话的理解,Marie Westfall 的故事展现了中国女性在美国及海外的角色转变。

“I think I am going to fly”: Chinese Pilots Trained in Portland During the 1930s

by Trish Hackett Nicola

A small newspaper clipping enclosed in a Chinese Exclusion Act case file held in the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) at Seattle led to a research journey that uncovered information about the lives of Chinese pilots who trained in Portland, Oregon, during the 1930s. The archival collection explored in this Research Files feature are among the thousands of case files created during the Exclusion Era, when all persons of Chinese descent — both American-born citizens and Chinese nationals — entering and leaving the United States were heavily scrutinized and subjected to a complicated documentation process. Those documents provide a foundation for further research, and author Trish Hackett Nicola hopes this essay will encourage researchers, especially Chinese and Chinese Americans, to learn more about their families’ diverse and complex histories.

《“我想我能飞行”:1930 年代在波特兰受训的华人飞行员》(“I think I am going to fly”: Chinese Pilots Trained in Portland During the 1930s)

Trish Hackett Nicola 著

在西雅图的美国国家档案和记录管理局 (NARA) 保存的《排华法案》案卷中,有一份小剪报吸引了研究者的目光,研究揭示了上世纪三十年代,在俄勒冈波特兰市受训的华人飞行员的生活轨迹。本研究档案专题所探讨的案卷是排华时代创建的数千份案卷之一,当时所有华人——包括在美出生的公民和中国国民——进出美国都受到严格审查,需要办理复杂的文书手续。这些文书为进一步研究奠定了基础,作者 Trish Hackett Nicola 希望这篇文章能够鼓舞研究人员,尤其是中国人和美籍华裔,深入了解本家族多元错综的历史渊源。

They Called Him . . . Buckaroo Sam: The Imagined Life of a Chinese Cowboy

by Dale Hom

“They Called Him . . . Buckaroo Sam” features the life of a Chinese pioneer in Grant County, northeastern Oregon.  His story dispels misconceptions that often permeate history of Chinese pioneers in America.  It is not generally known, for example, that there were Chinese cowboys, or vaqueros and wranglers, in the American West.  While it is indisputable that they would have faced racial prejudice, discrimination, and persecution, racial harmony nevertheless prevailed for Buckaroo Sam and his contemporaries in this mining region of Oregon.  For several years, he worked on the Stewart Ranch before becoming ranch foreman at the Harve Fields Ranch, one of the earliest ranches that employed an all-Chinese crew in the John Day Valley.  Using a graphic medium, Dale Hom imagines and conveys this cowboy’s lifestyle and circumstances, expanding the conventional view of Chinese pioneers on the western frontier.   

《人们叫他牛仔山姆:一个华人牛仔的构想生活》(They Called Him . . .Buckaroo Sam: The Imagined Life of a Chinese Cowboy)

Dale Hom 著

《人们叫他牛仔山姆》讲述的是俄勒冈东北部格兰特县一位华人先驱的人生故事。他的故事消除了在美华人先驱史中常见的误解。例如,在美国西部有华人牛仔,或称为牧人,这一点少有人知。他们一定遭遇过种族偏见、歧视和迫害,这不容置疑,但在俄勒冈的这个矿区,在牛仔山姆和他的同辈人中,种族和谐仍占上风。他在 Stewart 牧场牧野多年,后来成为 Harve Fields 牧场的领班,后者是约翰迪山谷最早全部雇用华工的牧场之一。作者 Dale Hom 调动视觉图景,构想并传达了这名牛仔的生活方式和环境,拓宽了读者对西部边疆华人先驱的传统看法。

The Village Database: A Resource for Chinese American Genealogy Research

by Henry Tom

Chinese American genealogy sources exist in both America and China, but finding them in China can be challenging. In America, an unintended consequence of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was the generation of voluminous government records that now benefit research on Chinese Americans by providing and confirming the names of people, of villages written in Chinese characters and romanized in English, and sometimes, remarkable photographs. In China, such work was performed at the village level. Meticulous village genealogy books (zupus) record the men in each village and contain family lineages for the villagers spanning hundreds to thousands of years; women’s names were not included.  Many of these books are now digitized and available through the online Village Database. In this Research Files feature, Henry Tom introduces readers to the database and guides them on how to use it.

《乡村数据库:美籍华人宗谱研究资源》(The Village Database: A Resource for Chinese American Genealogy Research)

Henry Tom 著

在中美两国都能追溯美籍华人的宗谱渊源,但在中国寻找它并不容易。在美国,1882 年《排华法案》衍生了一个意外后果,那就是产生了大量政府档案。如今,这些档案能够提供并确认用汉字和英文罗马字书写的人名和村庄名称,有时还附带宝贵照片,有益于美籍华人研究。在中国,这些工作在村级开展。细致的村庄族谱列载了每个村庄的男子,涵盖了千百年的村民家族世系;女性的名字未包含在内。其中许多族谱均已数字化,可通过在线乡村数据库 (Village Database) 查阅。在这篇研究档案专题中,Henry Tom 向读者介绍了该数据库,指导了如何加以使用。


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