In this Issue:
“Our Vanishing Glaciers”: One Hundred Years of Glacier Retreat in the Three Sisters Area, Oregon Cascade Range
by Jim E. O’Connor
In August 1910, thirty-nine members of the Mazamas Mountaineering Club ascended the peaks of the Three Sisters in central Oregon. While climbing, geologist Ira A. Williams photographed the surrounding scenery, including images of Collier Glacier. One hundred years later, U.S. Geological Survey research hydrologist Jim E. O’Connor matched those documented photographs with present day images — the result of which is a stunning lapse of glacial change in the Three Sister region. O’Connor asserts that “glaciers exist by the grace of climate,” and through a close examination of the history of the region’s glaciers, he provides an intriguing glimpse into the history of geological surveys and glacial studies in the Pacific Northwest, including their connection to significant scientific advances of the nineteenth century. The work of scientists and mountaineers who have monitored and recorded glacier changes for over a century allows us to see dramatic changes in a landscape that is especially sensitive to ongoing climate change.
introduced by Eliza E. Canty-Jones
The Oregon Historical Society’s 2013 “Summer of Citizenship” lecture series brought together ten of the region’s top scholars and civic leaders to speak on various aspects of citizenship, seeking to inform public understanding and debate over citizenship rights and responsibilities with a wide variety of historical and contemporary perspectives. The three talks published in this issue of the Oregon Historical Quarterly — by Marcela Mendoza, Andrew H. Fisher, and Kimberly Jensen — are a sampling of that series, offered as both record of the public lectures and documentation of research in progress.
Citizenship and Belonging in Uncertain Times
by Marcela Mendoza
Marcela Mendoza, Executive Director of Centro Latino Americano in Eugene, weaves an intriguing narrative exploring the legal, cultural and emotional aspects of the meaning of citizenship for immigrants in Oregon today. Through her talk, she explores the sense of belonging and how feeling personally integrated into a nation and a culture is much deeper and substantial than the fact of holding legal citizenship. Yet, the mixed assemblage of rights and responsibilities included in attaining citizenship has significant meaning for every person who chooses to obtain a new nationality.
Speaking for the First Americans: Nipo Strongheart and the Campaign for American Indian Citizenship
by Andrew H. Fisher
Historian and author Andrew Fisher discusses the life of Nipo Strongheart (1891–1966), an actor and activist of mixed Yakama and white ancestry, to explore the meaning of citizenship for Native Americans in the early decades of the twentieth century. Strongheart utilized his notoriety to speak out against the abuses of Native peoples to curious audiences while touring the country for lectures, chautauqua performances, and as a representative of the Society of American Indians. Recognizing performance as a political act, Strongheart hoped to give audiences a better opinion of Native peoples during a time when many whites still saw them as savages.
From Citizens to Enemy Aliens: Oregon Women, Marriage, and the Surveillance State during the First World War
by Kimberly Jensen
Between the days of June 17 and June 26, 1918, Oregon government officials under U.S. Presidential Proclamation collected family and work history information, photographs, and finger prints of 1,484 women from across the state of Oregon. These women were considered “enemy aliens” because they had emigrated from Germany, or, as was the case for 394 of these women, because they married German men thereby forfeiting their U.S. Citizenship. In this article, historian Kimberly Jensen brings to life this collection of Female Enemy Alien Registration records. During a time when a woman’s citizenship relied on that of her husband’s, Jensen reveals the expressions of life, character, and subtle forms of protest among the registration records of file boxes in the Oregon Historical Society Research Library collections.
“A Rich Darkness”: Discovering the William Stafford Archives at Lewis & Clark College
by Doug Erickson and Jeremy Skinner
Archivists Doug Erickson and Jeremy Skinner examine the life of poet and teacher William Stafford through the impressive William Stafford Archives at Lewis & Clark College’s Special Collections. Following a map laid by Stafford’s carefully preserved papers, Erickson and Skinner follow his life from early childhood to his time as a Conscientious Objector during World War II through his forty year career as a professor of literature and as a nationally renowned poet. Stafford was the most prolific of Oregon poets of the latter half of the twentieth century, as he produced 20,000 pages of drafts, 85 books, approximately 3,000 published poems, and over 800 anthologized poems as well as an extensive photo collection, including portraits of other nationally renowned poets and writers. In this Research Files article, Erickson and Skinner carefully examine the development of the William Stafford Archives and its potential for use in future scholarship.
Evidence of Noticing: Photographs of William Stafford
by Kirsten Rian
Curator Kirsten Rian reviewed over 16,000 photographs by poet William Stafford and chose a selection for display as part of exhibits mounted in celebration of the centennial of his birth. This photo essay reproduces a portion of Rian’s curator’s statement to accompany the exhibitions as well as several of the photographs.
Ghadar Party Centennial Celebration in Astoria, Oregon
by Johanna Ogden
Following her Summer 2012 Oregon Historical Quarterly article, “Ghadar, Historical Silences, and Notions of Belonging: Early 1900s Punjabis of the Columbia River,” historian Johanna Ogden worked with Astoria elected officials, Ghadar historians, and Sikh community members to organize a commemoration of the centennial of Ghadar’s founding. This Local History Spotlight article documents the two-day event and identifies its significance in a post-9/11 world.
I-O-N Heritage Museum: Remembering the Past — Preserving the Future in Jordan Valley, Oregon
by Joanne Cunningham
Jordan Valley, Oregon, located near state borders with both Idaho and Nevada, has a rich and diverse history, much of which is focused around nineteenth-century gold mining and associated immigration to the area. Economic opportunities associated with gold and agriculture brought migrants from across the United States and Europe, Basque immigrants, to the area. In this Local History Spotlight, longtime resident and museum curator Joanne Cunningham discusses the formation of the I-O-N Heritage Museum, which commemorates the rich cultural heritage of Jordan Valley.