The Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde

Valley of the Willamette River 1845 HJ Warre OrHi 49030

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The people of the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde represent almost thirty different tribes and bands that the U.S. government removed to the Grand Ronde Reservation in the nineteenth century. The history of the reservation—and how so many western Oregon Native people came to reside there—is long and complex. With support from the Spirit Mountain Community Fund, the Oregon Historical Society is working with scholars in an ongoing effort to create Oregon Encyclopedia entries on the people, places, and events connected to the history of the Grand Ronde people. Included in this new online exhibit are recently published entries by E.A. Schwartz, Kenneth Ames, David Lewis, Robert T. Boyd, Henry Zenk, William Lang, Dan Boxberger, Yvonne Hadja, and Chuck Williams. OHS archival material connected to the history of the Grand Ronde have been digitized and published on the OHS digital history websites.


Fishing on Celilo Falls 023481_s

Treaty agreements between Native Americans and the federal government include the right to fish at “usual and accustomed places.” Celilo Falls, on the Columbia River near The Dalles, had been a major fishing, trading, and gathering place for thousands of years, and Indians continued to fish there into the 1950s. Fishermen used elaborate platforms to navigate the fast-moving and strong falls. In 1957, the completed The Dalles Dam inundated Celilo and the nearby village, effectively ending millennia of Native fishing practices.  

OHS 023481

folder 2_orhi85526_Fort Yamhill Blockhouse

The Fort Yamhill Blockhouse was built in 1856 on the edge of the newly created Grand Ronde Reservation to regulate contact between Native peoples and white settlers. The U.S. soldiers stationed there had the unusual task of keeping homesteaders out of the reservation in order to preserve the land agreements outlined by treaty. (Most blockhouses served the interests of the settlers against the Native population.) During the Civil War, the blockhouse was decommissioned and transferred to the reservation; preservationists eventually moved it to Dayton, Oregon, where it still stands. 

OHS OrHi85526

folder 5 stick game cn022573_c

Among the many gambling games played for millennia by Native peoples in Oregon are stick games. The games are variously simple or elaborate, and forms of them have been found across the West, Canada, and Alaska. This photo of a “stick game in progress” was taken by Andrew Kershaw, a U.S. federal Indian agent and physician at the Grand Ronde Reservation during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 

OHS cn022581

folder 5_john hudson mattie hudson gertrude hudson Marie Hudson martha sands pearl hudson cn022570c

In 1856, thousands of Native people were removed from their traditional lands in western Oregon and marched or shipped along what became known as the Oregon Trail of Tears to the newly formed Siletz and Grand Ronde Reservations. Members of the Hudson family were likely part of that forced resettlement, and their descendants have continuously lived in Grand Ronde. Indian agent Andrew Kershaw took this photo of John Hudson, Mattie Hudson, Gertrude Hudson, Marie Hudson, Martha Sands, and Pearl Hudson. The Hudsons are renowned basket makers. 

OHS cn022570c

folder 8_Allie Riggs middle CN022581

This studio portrait of Allie Riggs (center) of Grand Ronde, with two unidentified women, was taken by the Cherrington Bros. in Salem. Many of their photos of Native Americans were packaged and sold as postcards. This image was included in the negatives the Cherringtons left behind when they sold out to Thomas Cronise, which became part of the collection Cronise donated to OHS. 

OHS CN022581

Grand Ronde woman and child orhi85528 Andrew Kershaw col_cl

This unidentified Grand Ronde woman and child posed for Indian agent Andrew Kershaw in what is likely the 1890s. Many of Kershaw’s records and photographs are held at the Oregon Historical Society Research Library. 

OHS OrHi85528

spirit mtn 1904 019372_c

Spirit Mountain is part of the traditional homeland of the Yamel Kalpuyans, who called it dji’ntu. It is a sacred site to the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde, although it is owned in part by the Stimson Lumber Company. Members of the Grand Ronde continue to collect plants and nuts from the mountain and hold gatherings at the summit.  

OHS, 1904, 019372

On the Oregon History Wayfinder

The Oregon History Wayfinder, Grand Ronde

Thomas J. Cronise and the Chemawa Indian Boarding School photographs

In 1893, siblings Thomas and Anna Cronise opened a photography studio—Cronise & Cronise—on the corner of State and High Streets in Salem. Tom left the studio in 1894, and Anna and her husband Howard Trover continued to run the business as Cronise Studios and later as the Trover-Cronise Photo Studio. Tom opened his own Salem studio in 1902 under his own name. His wife Nellie and son Harry went into business with him and eventually took over the studio in 1927 when Tom died. Harry Cronise kept the studio open into the 1970s.

As early as 1904, Tom Cronise had begun marketing his portrait photography for $0.50 a photo to people who attended classes and lived at Chemawa Indian Boarding School, north of Salem. He took hundreds of photographs of people at Chemawa and in the Salem area, and the Oregon Historical Society holds many of the original negatives. Fortunately, Cronise attached names to most of his photographs, and while we include them here it is not always clear which person in the image belongs to that name. This is likely a result of Cronise's accounting system—the person who commissioned the entry was named, and others in the photo were listed as "friends" or "family."

 

Alpheus Dalton,  1917, OHS 0137G043
Alpheus Dalton, 1917, OHS 0137G043
Alphys (Alpheus) Dalton with friend, 1916, OHS 0131G021
Alphys (Alpheus) Dalton with friend, 1916, OHS 0131G021
Anita McLaughlin, 1904, OHS 0014G045
Anita McLaughlin, 1904, OHS 0014G045
Anna McKinck, 1918, OHS  0154N155
Anna McKinck, 1918, OHS 0154N155
Annie Hall, 1917, OHS 0135G066
Annie Hall, 1917, OHS 0135G066
Arthur Johnson, 1911, OHS 0077G022
Arthur Johnson, 1911, OHS 0077G022
Belinda Cheeps, 1917, OHS 0148G007
Belinda Cheeps, 1917, OHS 0148G007
Bessie Chiloquin, 1905, OHS 0036G008
Bessie Chiloquin, 1905, OHS 0036G008
Catherine Matte, 1917, OHS 0132G075
Catherine Matte, 1917, OHS 0132G075
Celia Gordon, 1918, OHS 0144G04
Celia Gordon, 1918, OHS 0144G04
Children of David Leno, Grand Ronde, 1917, OHS 0140G022
Children of David Leno, Grand Ronde, 1917, OHS 0140G022
Children of Dollie Case, 1908, OHS 0053G037
Children of Dollie Case, 1908, OHS 0053G037
Children of Mrs WJ Howard, 1906, OHS 0038G066
Children of Mrs WJ Howard, 1906, OHS 0038G066
Children of William Carrascos, 1908, OHS 0050G031
Children of William Carrascos, 1908, OHS 0050G031
Delia Fann, 1919, OHS 0155N201
Delia Fann, 1919, OHS 0155N201
Edna Hill, 1919, OHS 0155N198
Edna Hill, 1919, OHS 0155N198
Eliza Hubert, 1920, OHS 0156N086
Eliza Hubert, 1920, OHS 0156N086
Elizabeth Gengras with friend, 1915, OHS 0118G025
Elizabeth Gengras with friend, 1915, OHS 0118G025
Emma Kinninok, 1913, OHS 0103G065
Emma Kinninok, 1913, OHS 0103G065
Eva Dubray, 1918, OHS 0154N052
Eva Dubray, 1918, OHS 0154N052
Flora Evans, 1904, OHS 0014G070
Flora Evans, 1904, OHS 0014G070
Florence Landergreen and family, 1915, OHS 0116G010
Florence Landergreen and family, 1915, OHS 0116G010
Florence McDonald, 1911, OHS 0078G073
Florence McDonald, 1911, OHS 0078G073
Frank Evans, 1922, OHS 0158N233
Frank Evans, 1922, OHS 0158N233
Gertrude Marshall with friends, 1916, OHS 0131G050
Gertrude Marshall with friends, 1916, OHS 0131G050
Hattie Cleveland, 1917, OHS 0137G061
Hattie Cleveland, 1917, OHS 0137G061
Hazel Butler, 1910, OHS 0067G065
Hazel Butler, 1910, OHS 0067G065
Helen Hamden, 1908, OHS 0051G068
Helen Hamden, 1908, OHS 0051G068
Irene Matt with friend, 1918, OHS 0146G043
Irene Matt with friend, 1918, OHS 0146G043
Isaac Medicine, 1918, OHS 0146G024
Isaac Medicine, 1918, OHS 0146G024
James C Matthews and family, 1906, OHS 0041G007
James C Matthews and family, 1906, OHS 0041G007
James Mathew, 1917, OHS 0135G004
James Mathew, 1917, OHS 0135G004
Laura Clairmont (left), 1917, OHS 0136G062
Laura Clairmont (left), 1917, OHS 0136G062
Laura Clairmont, 1917, OHS 0135G068
Laura Clairmont, 1917, OHS 0135G068
Lilly Dixon, 1919, OHS 0155N199
Lilly Dixon, 1919, OHS 0155N199
Logan Fann, 1918, OHS 0146G025
Logan Fann, 1918, OHS 0146G025
Louise Jewett (right) with friends, 1916, OHS 0125G070
Louise Jewett (right) with friends, 1916, OHS 0125G070
Louise Jewett, 1916, OHS 0125G071
Louise Jewett, 1916, OHS 0125G071
Madrona Mann, 1917, OHS 0740G0162
Madrona Mann, 1917, OHS 0740G0162
Maggie Allard, 1914, OHS 0112G007
Maggie Allard, 1914, OHS 0112G007
Maggie Gardipe, 1918, OHS 0154N008
Maggie Gardipe, 1918, OHS 0154N008
Maggie Johnson, 1913, OHS 0103G036
Maggie Johnson, 1913, OHS 0103G036
Mary Andrews, 1910, OHS 0064G057
Mary Andrews, 1910, OHS 0064G057
Mary Johnson, 1910, OHS 0067G067
Mary Johnson, 1910, OHS 0067G067
Mary Liphart and family, 1906, OHS 0043G016
Mary Liphart and family, 1906, OHS 0043G016
Mary McCush, 1908, OHS 0052G014
Mary McCush, 1908, OHS 0052G014
Michael McCloud, 1912, OHS 0084G046
Michael McCloud, 1912, OHS 0084G046
Minnie Columbia, 1917, OHS 0133G008
Minnie Columbia, 1917, OHS 0133G008
Minnie Joe Columbia, 1918, OHS 0146G065
Minnie Joe Columbia, 1918, OHS 0146G065
Orson George and friend, 1922, OHS 0159N062
Orson George and friend, 1922, OHS 0159N062
Paul Liphart, 1919, OHS 0154N189
Paul Liphart, 1919, OHS 0154N189
P.L. Gimino and family, 1919, OHS 0155N035
P.L. Gimino and family, 1919, OHS 0155N035
Roderick Judson, 1919, OHS 0155N060
Roderick Judson, 1919, OHS 0155N060
Rose Fischer, 1919, OHS 0155N184
Rose Fischer, 1919, OHS 0155N184
Sadie Knowles with friend Chemawa, 1916, OHS 0128G002
Sadie Knowles with friend Chemawa, 1916, OHS 0128G002
Steven Chiefnight, 1917, OHS 0134G049
Steven Chiefnight, 1917, OHS 0134G049
Susie Duval with friend, 1905, OHS 0033G008
Susie Duval with friend, 1905, OHS 0033G008
Theresa Gua, 1918, OHS 0144G047
Theresa Gua, 1918, OHS 0144G047
Thomas Lasleton and friend, 1921, OHS 0158N298
Thomas Lasleton and friend, 1921, OHS 0158N298
Weekly Chemawa American ad_feb 23 1906 Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde
Weekly Chemawa American ad_feb 23 1906 Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde
William J Church (far left) and friends, 1917, OHS 0142g008
William J Church (far left) and friends, 1917, OHS 0142g008
William J Church of Portland, 1918, OHS 0147G021
William J Church of Portland, 1918, OHS 0147G021
WL Bright and Chemawa students, 1886, OHS 0173G006
WL Bright and Chemawa students, 1886, OHS 0173G006

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