Subtopic : For Better and For Worse, Part of the Wider World: World War II and the Post-War Boom
Themes: People and the Environment, Politics and Government, Economics, Industrialization
By 1940, with a world war in full blaze elsewhere on the globe, America began to hum with global demand for its resources and its manufacturing production. The economic boom accelerated as a result of the nation’s entry into the war in December 1941. Although Portland and other urban places in the Pacific Northwest became major manufacturing centers of the “Home Front,” southeastern Oregon’s main contribution to the war effort was an increased production of lumber and beef. High prices for these two commodities returned, and, even with wartime wage and price controls, steadily rose higher than anything the market had offered before. During and after the war years, the timberlands of western Lake County, tapped by Weyerhaueser railroad spurs running eastward from Klamath Falls, and the Warner Mountains supported dozens of sawmills. Many of them were very small-capacity, family-run operations, but with the insatiable demand for lumber, their profit margins were high.
During World War II, although sons and daughters left Lake, Harney, and Malheur counties to join the armed forces or to work in the defense plants of West Coast cities, and a few of the area’s soldiers, sailors, and airmen died fighting in the Pacific and European theaters, the military aspect of the war had little impact on southeastern Oregon’s landscape. Several Army infantry divisions participated in the 1943 “Oregon Maneuvers” between Bend and Burns on the high desert’s northwest margin, but, unlike elsewhere in the West, the high desert held no huge Army cantonments (training bases), no busy airfields, or any top-secret weapons installations.
Spurred on by both the pent-up consumer demand of the late Depression years and by the high wages of the war years, much of which went into savings, America’s postwar economy took off on a thirty-year-long trajectory of rising middle-class prosperity unheard of before or since. Southeastern Oregon participated in this postwar boom largely through increased commodity demand for beef and lumber. The Rural Electrification Administration (REA)—a New Deal program—remained in business after the Depression. Together with the federal Bonneville Power Administration and the influential persuasiveness of affable life-long local rancher Reub Long, the REA built a long line of power poles south and east from the Bend area, finally bringing electricity to Fort Rock and Silver Lake in 1955.
With improved water-pumping technology, the Columbia River-generated hydropower of the Bonneville Power Administration helped create another land boom in this portion of the northern Great Basin. The relatively shallow aquifer of groundwater, long hidden beneath the dry bed of Ice Age Lake Fort Rock, could now be tapped by powerful pumps for large-scale irrigation supply, as well as for increased domestic use. During the late 1950s and on through the 1960s, cultivable private land throughout the area turned emerald green with squares and then with huge circles of alfalfa hay, watered with center-pivot pumps. Electrification eventually did the same in a few other groundwater-blessed portions of the region, making some of the high desert “bloom as a pasture,” if not “as a rose.”
The federal government emerged as an ever more important player in the postwar era. The U.S. Department of Interior’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM) became a dominant presence on the high desert from the 1950s to the 1970s, managing the range and overseeing grazing on millions of acres of federal land. And it was during the 1970s that the BLM began its ongoing role in managing the high desert’s remnant herds of mustangs, the wild horses descended from the great nineteenth-century ranches’ working horses.
Federal funds heavily bankrolled construction of Highway 140 during the years around 1960. It brought a well-engineered, all-weather highway through southeastern Oregon to join cross-country Interstate 80 in northern Nevada. This lengthy “Winnemucca-to-the-Sea Highway” soon became an important shortcut for freight truckers and others traveling between western Oregon and points east. Also during the 1950s and 1960s, following the onset of the “Atomic Age” and the Cold War, the federal government subsidized the prospecting and mining of uranium deposits in the American West, including some near Lakeview and a few other places in the region.
© Jeff LaLande, 2005
Themes: People and the Environment,Politics and Government,Economics,Industrialization
Regions: Southeastern Oregon
Author: Jeff LaLande
The federal government emerged as a major player in southeastern Oregon both during the war and as part of the post-war era of investment.
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